Barb Wilkie's EHN Website
Last updated 2008

EHN Board President Barb Wilkie was very ill from chemically-induced kidney disease for several years. She passed away May 31, 2011. EHN presents this site both as a tribute and as valuable information. Many links and references will be out of date but Barb's research holds up over time. We will be transferring the site page by page, with updated details, to EHN's main site. If you would like to reach an EHN staff person, please contact us directly.



Clicking on the alpha character above will take you to another page of links.

Use the clickables if you are in a hurry to get to the following topics:

Pain | Paint | Parents | Parkinson's | Parks & Rec | PBDEs | PBS

Pepper Spray | Perc | Perfume | Perfumes Pollute

Pest Management | Pesticides | Pesticide Inerts | Pests | Pets | Pew | PG&E

Pharmaceutical Industry | Phenol | Photosensitivity | Phthalates | Physicains/PSR

Pierce's Disease | Pine Sol® | PIRG | Plants | Plastic

Poetry | Poisons | Polio | Pollinators | Pollutants/Pollution

Popcorn | POPs | Porphyria | Postal Info | Posters | Power | PPA

Precautionary Principle | Pregnancy | PrepareNow

Press Releases | Pretty Nasty | Preventing Harm

Procurement | Produce/Products | Project Censored | Prop 65 Chemicals | Propylene Glycol

Psoriasis | Psychiatric | Publications | PubMed | Pump Handle | Purchasing | PVCs | Pyrethroids

ehnlinx/p.htm -- 2/7/00

Outbound to Government LINKS

P&G (Procter and Gamble)
PACE (Protect all Children's Environment)
Information regarding pesticides. -- barb

EI/MCS Louisville

Pacific Sun
Mill Valley's Who's Who w/Steve McNamara, editor and publisher, Pacific Sun


Also see: page B, Building

page C, Carpets

page C, Clean

page G, Green

page P, Pesticide Info and Least Toxic Methods

page S, Sustainability

Also, learn about Sick Building Syndrome


  • Dr. Martin Pall
    Washington State University
    Panic Disorder
    Frankly, I'd like to see some research on the effects of our modern products with their
    superfluous toxins and their effects on the central nervous system, which becomes diagnosed
    as Panic Disorder or PD. If you know of such information, please inform me. At this time, I
    believe we have a likely case of medical misdiagnoses. Of course, prescribing drugs rather
    than telling the patient to avoid synthetic scents and pesticides, and products with high-emitting
    VOCs (volatile organic compounds) seems to be the western mainstream medical way. -- barb

    Palantir Information Systems of Canada Limited

    PANNA -- Pesticide Action Network North America Regional Center

    Para Oxonase

    • Latest Research On The Truth About Parabens
      Living Nature
      "... There are lots of arguments about commercial production of parabens, and not much
      information around. They are produced from a petroleum derivative, toluene. ..."


  • Paraquad, Inc. - Independence for people with disabilities
    St. Louis, MO
    This site is quite a find for those living with MCS! -- barb


    • Fragrance-Free Environments and No -Fragrance Spaces--
      Not just a personal preference, but a Vital Matter of Health

      (The author, Roberta K. Rigsby, Ph.D., has kindly given permission for you to reproduce this
      without seeking reprint permission, but do check it closely for some typos. -- barb 02/02/02)


    • Frequently Asked Questions About Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
      (Watch for a few typos ...) -- barb


    • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)
      Pardon me, but is that your perfume I'm smelling?

      " ... No one would argue the fact that carbon monoxide, an odorless and colorless gas,
      is highly poisonous. But change the subject to MCS, and many of those same people will
      still affirm that 'if I can't see it, it doesn't exist.' ..."


    Parkinson's Disease
    Parks and Recreation
    Parrish, Deborah
    Boston Business Journal
    One woman's allergic reaction Framingham woman's allergy symptoms
    sparked small business selling to sufferers
    By Roberta Holland Journal Staff

    Pathways Awareness Foundation
    "Pathways gained its name from the belief that the brain can create
    new connections if the old connections no longer work."

    Partnership for Prevention


      Two bits' worth from barb; 12/6/00: Watch it if you read "Priorities in Prevention - a PDF file
      Responding to the Asthma Epidemic ä September 2000." There is not ONE mention of the
      words fragrance, perfume, air 'freshener.' They should start looking under their noses! At
      least, they are starting to get it when it comes to pesticides: "... A related, but unproven,17 theory
      is that high household pesticide levels could be partially linked to asthma. ..." But that's
      not the end of my criticism: They use OLD data! They wrote: " ... Overall, the disease affects
      about 14.5 million Americans, including roughly 5% of U.S. adults.4, 5 Inhalant Allergens. ..."
      In the mid 1990s, it was 14.5, now it's more like 17.3 million and soaring. See EHN's
      section on Statistics at -- barb

      Priorities in Prevention - a PDF file


  • Patients' Bill of Rights -- see EHN's page B/


  • PBDEs - Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    PBTs - Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals in Central and
    Eastern European Countries - State-of-the-art Report

    RECETOX - TOCOEN & Associates


    Pediatric Database "[D]esigned by Dr. Alan Gandy (MD.,PhD.,FRCP(C)) while enrolled in the Pediatric
    Residency Programme at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario,
    Canada from 1990-1994. Presently he is a Consultant Pediatrician in Summerside,
    Prince Edward Island, Canada. ..."

    People For Internet Responsibility- PFIR (WWW.PFIR.ORG)

    Pepper Spray (Berkeley, California)

    Pepper Spray (Humboldt County, California)

    Perchloroethylene , perchlorate Perc"
    Fragrance: There is more to meet the nose than just scent!

    That scent is concocted from petrochemical derivatives. I'm so sorry that folks think only to warn
    me that they can't get near because they are wearing perfume, cologne, aftershave, highly
    scented deodorant, etc., but never give a thought to the long-term effects they may be causing
    their body. Skin is not a barrier, and besides, you inhale those chemicals too.

    Doctors diagnose distinct diseases, but seldom will they come up with the cause. Perfumes and
    other scented products may be the culprit. Look for that benign sounding word, "fragrance," on
    the packaging . . . then look for safer alternatives. Learn as much as you can about the products
    you are putting on your body as they become part of your body! -- barb wilkie

    "Scent-Sensitive Nurse Sues LDS"
    BY MICHAEL VIGH THE SALT LAKE TRIBUNE, Tuesday, October 15, 2002
    "LDS Hospital nurse Susan Bell says she suffered for more than a year from daily
    headaches, eye irritation, swelling of her face and lips and other symptoms because
    her co-workers doused themselves in perfume or cologne.

    "Bell, 57, says she became the office laughingstock for supervisors and colleagues,
    some of whom continued to bathe in their perfumes even after she told them it made
    her sick. She worked at the hospital for more than a decade before she took a disability
    leave in March 2001.

    "Last week, the Eagle Mountain woman filed a lawsuit against the hospital in U.S. District
    Court, claiming supervisors failed to adequately accommodate her and enforce their
    own policy prohibiting the wearing of heavy perfumes.

    "I have allergic and severe reactions to fragrances and paints," Bell said in a statement to
    the Utah Labor Commission's anti-discrimination division. "I complained to my
    supervisors . . . and they promised to fix the problem, yet no action was taken and every
    day I was sick at work.' ...

    " ... Annette Green, [former] executive director of the Fragrance Foundation in New York,
    has said the restrictions are much ado about nothing, arguing perfume does not
    pollute the air and does not contain carcinogens, as cigarettes do.
    [Emphasis added as I wonder, who is kidding whom? Analyses prove Green WRONG! -- barb]

    California Health and Safety Code Section 41700
    41700. Except as otherwise provided in Section 41705, no person shall discharge from
    any source whatsoever such quantities of air contaminants or other material which cause
    injury, detriment, nuisance, or annoyance to any considerable number of persons or
    to the public, or which endanger the comfort, repose, health, or safety of any such
    persons or the public, or which cause, or have a natural tendency to cause, injury or
    damage to business or property. ..."

    "... 41705. (a) Section 41700 shall not apply to odors emanating from agricultural
    operations necessary for the growing of crops or the raising of fowl or animals.

    • Perfume pollutes the air!

    • CNS Story: FRAGRANCE Dec-15-2004 (860 words) xxxn "Parishioners breathe easier in Seattle church's 'fragrance-free' zone"
      By Terry McGuire; Catholic News Service


    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
      Common Indoor Air Pollutants, under VOCs


    • Perfumes cause allergies - News
      "...The study concluded that the number of eczema patients with perfume allergy has
      doubled since 1979 from one in twenty eczema patients to one in ten in 1995. ..."

      "Tests by the perfume/cosmetics industry "The majority of studies have been undertaken by the perfume/cosmetics industry, and
      only a minor part are publicly available. Jeanne Duus Johansen suggests that when
      the results are made public, they are likely to show better results than those of the
      studies she has been involved with. This is because the industry tests perfumes on healthy
      persons and so the number of allergic eczema reactions will always be lower than in
      the studies at Gentofte University Hospital, where the substances are tested on eczema
      patients. This means that the industry's research will not show how the
      products affect people with allergy problems. ..."
      Folks, this is just skin reactions of the primary user, at that. What about effects over time from
      absorption? What about effects over time from inhaling? Remember scents are made to be
      inhaled (smelled), yet the industry doesn't openly test for effects upon inhalation . . . inhalation by
      user nor for effects upon inhalation by nonusers. Buyer BEWARE! Look for organic products,
      free of petrochemical-derived fragrances for personal care and for cleaning and maintenance -- barb

    • Perfume pollutes bodies! . . . your body and mine.

      And, I don't use the stuff as perfume, nor in cosmetics or personal care products, nor as
      household cleaning products.

      Perfumes contain chemicals that are known or suspected carcinogens (capable of causing
      cancer), hormone disrupters (look to phthalates, which are added to make scents last),
      irritants (defined as poison to lungs and skin), neurotoxins (affecting brain and
      nervous systems), sensitizers (lungs and skin) and teratogens (adversely affecting
      embryonic and fetal development). Buy an analysis, OR, look at the analyses that form
      the basis of EHN's 1999 FDA Citizens' Petition, assigned docket number 99P-1340.

      Buyer beware! . . . Except you can't because the industry does not have to label fragrances,
      and the FDA does not test before marketing and cannot require testing before marketing.
      It is up to you, the consumer, to look for safer, fragrance-free products. Until you can
      see evidence that modern, petrochemical-derived fragrances do not pollute your body,
      look for safer alternatives. IF you acquire any of the diseases caused, exacerbated or
      triggered by fragrances, you'll sure find fragrance-free alternatives; it's THE way of life for us. -- barb wilkie
      EHN's FDA Petition Analysis

      GreenPeace UK analyses perfumes

      Are Chemical Health Hazards Hiding in Make-Up?
      The Breast Cancer Fund's Press Releases

      Dibutyl Phthalate
      From EWG's report, via the UK
      "Dibutyl Phthalate is just one ingredient in an alphabet soup of pollutants that
      contaminate every person in the industrialized world! "

    • Perfume pollutes the water!

      Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Agents of Subtle Change? Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 107, Supplement 6, December 1999

      AromaticsOnline - FAQs
      " ... The main aromatics are benzene, toluene and the xylenes; they are used as starting materials for a wide range of consumer products. ..."


        And from here, you can click out to information on benzene, toluene and the xylenes,
        but there is not a separate link to provide. Intereestingly, when you look up the aromatics,benzene, toluene and the xylenes, you'll not find -- at least not at this time Feb '04 -- a hint that these chemicals are an important part of scent, even though "aromatic" means "fragrance." -- barb

      You can also check Medline for information on perfume or fragrance. When doing so,
      I brought up a page of chemicals, one of which was the "Fragrance material review on
      linalyl phenylacetate" by RIFM (Research Institute for Fragrance Materials). On page,,
      one will see a bunch of zeros by words such as Carcinogens, Irritants, Monoterpenes,
      Mutagens, Perfume, Phenylacetates and Teratogens.

      However, searching the CAS number, 7143-69-3, one can learn that linalyl phenylacetate,
      used in "Fine Fragrance, Beauty Care, Soap, Laundry Care, Household" providing the
      "honey-like warmth in exotic floral bouquets, as well as in sweet tropical fruit accords."
      You'll also learn it is "not found in nature" and that its "[t]enacity on blotter [is] 9 hours."
      All of that, but there seems to be no MSDS for 7143-69-3. Where's its toxicity info?

      Linalyl phenylacetate is also "scheduled for evaluation or re-evaluation at the
      fifty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA),
      Geneva, 4-13 June 2002.

      Seems to me we cannot learn enough about this chemical used as fragrance and flavor. -- barb

    Cosmetics Unmasked News and Updates Page

    Search for fragrance or perfume on the Danish Environmental Protection Agency's site

  • Cats
    • Feline Vaccinology
      By Julie K. Levy, DMV
      Current vaccine recommendations "... While few would dispute that vaccination is responsible for saving the lives of
      millions of cats, the recent recognition of rare, life-threatening reactions to vaccination
      has led some veterinarians to re-evaluate the need to revaccinate cats every year. ..."


  • Dogs

    Pets in general
    -- end pets --

    Pew Environmental Health Commission
    "The Pew Commission officially ended on February 28, 2001.
    Please visit The Trust for America's Health at"

    John Hopkins School of Public Health


    • Reports - PDF files and HTML links



        Commission Charges Federal Government Is Failing to Stop Asthma Epidemic

        This is a PDF file, available from link, above. It does not contain one word about synthetic
        chemical products.

        As horrifying as those stats are, just think how many people could help themselves -- and their
        loved ones, friends and colleagues who live with asthma -- by simply reducing the number of
        superfluous toxins in their lives.

        Had those of us living with MCS been listened to lo these many years, perhaps these asthma
        figures would not be skyrocketing now. These figures have soared during the very period of time
        that fragrances have been added to a greater array of products and have been formulated to
        "announce," to "remind," to waft further and last longer. Add to that, the practice that finds more
        fragrance products are worn more places than ever before, and you've got grounds for a
        public health disaster. And the populations most affected are the very peoples targeted by the
        fragrance industry. And now, the industry is targeting children for their "new profit center."
        Sound unbelievable? See EHN's section on Statistics at

        How can these numbers be reduced? How can lives be spared? Let's start with PREVENTION.
        Let's get that horse back in front of the cart! How? By immediately eliminating synthetic
        fragrances, pesticidees, and fertilizers. Also by switching to low-emitting VOC products such as:
        paints, carpets, and carpet adhesives. Just for starters!

        And lest you wonder, I make these suggestions based upon my experience. I'm living proof that
        one can get better. I'm not cured, because I'm still put in harm's way by these superfluous
        toxins in our modern products. But, once I retired -- although I certainly hadn't wanted to
        retire! -- I was no longer daily inhaling the superfluous toxins worn and used by others. Adding
        to my ongoing chiropractic treatment, I also started acupuncture and Chinese herb treatments,
        and learned acupressure points. My body was one of those that got sicker on prescribed drugs
        -- some asthma inhaler episodes were quite daunting. Now, I don't live daily with asthma, nor
        do I live with chronic bronchits, sinusitis, laryngitis, rhinitis, migraines, . . .

        There is hope. We need health care that causes no harm. And we must practice AVOIDANCE.
        But, therein lies the trick -- how to avoid superfluous toxins that volatilize from the products
        used by others? I use a mask and/or a respirator and oxygen on an as-needed basis. -- barb. 12/8/00



    Pharmaceutical Industry

    Also see EHN's section on DRUGS



      EPA's Phenol - 108-95-2 - Hazard Summary
      "Exposure to phenol may occur from the use of some medicinal products (including throat lozenges and ointments). Phenol is highly irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans after acute (short-term) inhalation or dermal exposures. Phenol is considered to be quite toxic to humans via oral exposure. Anorexia, progressive weight loss, diarrhea, vertigo, salivation, a dark coloration of the urine, and blood and liver effects have been reported in chronically (long-term) exposed humans. Animal studies have reported reduced fetal body weights, growth retardation, and abnormal development in the offspring of animals exposed to phenol by the oral route. EPA has classified phenol as a Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.



      By Dr. Wolff
      Phenol is listed twice -- under Disinfectants and Furniture polish. -- barb


    • if Looks Could Kill
      From The Cosmetic Health Report Newsletter
      by Judi Vance
      "...The deodorant soap has a pH of 9, which removes the protective acid mantle of the
      skin making it more alkaline and therefore, more vulnerable to penetration. It also
      contains ammonia, formaldehyde and phenol, which are known carcinogens and
      triclocarban, which is under suspicion of being a cancer causing agent with daily use...."


    • IRIS - Integrated Risk Information System -- US EPA


    • Lakes Environmental Software "EPA has classified phenol as a Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity,
      based on a lack of data concerning carcinogenic effects in humans and animals."


    • Medical Management Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures


    • MSDS - Mallinckrodt - JT Baker
      Phenol: Synonyms: Carbolic acid; Phenic acid; Phenylic acid; Hydroxybenzene;
      Monohydroxybenzene; CAS No.: 108-95-2


    • National Occupational Health and Safety Commission - Commonwealth of Australia


    • Phenols - Heritage Research Center Ltd.
      "...Although phenol occurs naturally, it is important to note that some phenol
      compounds are used as pesticides.

      "In humans, high exposure to phenols can result in: muscle pain, anorexia, liver damage,
      weight loss, blood disorders, and fatigue and to increased risks of respiratory cancer,
      heart disease, immune system disorders.

      "In animals, high exposure to phenols can result in: muscle tremors and loss of
      coordination, paralysis, severe injury to the heart, kidneys, liver, and
      lungs, followed by death in some cases.

      "Although animal studies suggest a link between phenols and cancer, it has not yet been
      definitively classified as a human carcinogen. ..."

    • UATW - Unified Air Toxics Website - EPA


    • Vaccine Ingredients
      "Phenol (also a carcinogen) - may cause paralysis, convulsions, coma, and necrosis
      and gangrene "


    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)

    Philip Morris Incorporated Document Site

    Phone Services - Long Distance


  • Drug-induced Photosensitivity
    (Our Read-it-at-the-Beach Issue!)
    Marcia L. Buck, Pharm.D.


    Richard F. Edlich, M.D., Ph.D.
    Distinguished Professor of Plastic Surgery
    and Professor of Biomedical Engineering
    University of Virginia Health Systems
    Martha J. Haines, B.S.N
    Research Associate
    Charlottesville, VA

    Also see EHN's page on Endocrine [hormone] Disrupters


    Note: Please use your broswers FIND command to locate all info on phthalates on this page.

    Also, I ask that you keep in mind that while phthalates are finally getting the press they
    deserve, they are not the only harmful chemicals to be found through analyses of
    modern, petrochemical-derived fragrances.

    Used as plasticizers in toys, IVs, ..., AND used in fragrances! -- as found in 1998, and
    made public by Betty Bridges, RN and Barb Wilkie, May 11, 1999 via analysis for EHN's
    FDA Citizens' Petition. See, Analysis summary (table) for FDA Citizens' Petition 99P-1340.

    Do notice the number of fragrance chemicals found through analysis that carry the message,
    "The chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated."
    Also notice the chemicals that appear on EPA's Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory
    and the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS).
    Or, on Betty's Fragranced Products Information Network at

    Petition Statement
    "Diethyl Phthalate (CAS# 84-66-2) was positively identified as being present. Further study
    showed the temperature needed to volatilize Diethyl Phthalate was much higher than skin
    temperature. This indicates the compound would remain on the skin which would increase
    potential for absorption. With concerns over diethyl phthalate as a hormone disrupter, use in
    direct skin contact products, especially products that are used on a daily basis poses serious
    health concerns. Phthalates are known to be lipophilic in nature and have the potential to
    accumulate in fat tissue.

    April 2001FDA on Phthalates -- Phthalates and Cosmetic Products

    Excerpted: " ...
    How do I know if there are phthalates in the cosmetics I use?

    "Under the authority of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA), FDA requires an
    ingredient declaration on the cosmetic products sold at the retail level to consumers.
    Consumers can tell whether some products contain phthalates by reading the ingredient
    declaration on the labels of such products.

    "However, the regulations do not require the listing of the individual fragrance
    ingredients; therefore, the consumer will not be able to determine from the ingredient
    declaration if phthalates are present in a fragrance. Also, because the FPLA does not
    apply to products used exclusively by professionals--for example, in salons--the
    requirement for an ingredient declaration does not apply to these products. ..."
    Now hear this! Most, if not all (remember there is no labeling required and it costs money to
    have scents analyzed!), synthetic fragrances do contain phthalates because phthalates make the
    petrochemically concocted scent last longer! If there was no worry about the various chemicals
    used to make fragrances, then the industry would inform us. They'd be happy to do so. As it is,
    the lobbying arm of the industry claims that their products and ingredients are "safe and
    wholesome." NOW I ask: Where is the proof of that? Safe? WHOLESOME? ... when millions are
    made ill, disabled and some prematurely dead because of petrochemically derived scents? Come
    now! When will the FDA wake up to the letters re: EHN's FDA Petition 99P-1340, written by
    WE, THE PEOPLE??? -- barb


    July 10, 2002 --New study out on phthalates, available from Not Too Pretty

    Phthalates in fragrances make the scent last longer. Source: "Phthalates and Your Health"
    by American Chemistry Council, Inc., July 10, 2002.

      "When perfume fragrances are dissolved in either DEP or DMP,
      they evaporate more slowly, making the scent linger longer."
    To my mind, this proves once again the reasoning behind the fragrance industry's
    public relations campaign calling for public awareness of one's "scent circle" is fallacious.

    FDA Petition Analyses

    Also see
       Hormone Disrupters

       Plastic Bottles, below

    • Aubrey Organics
      Prenatal Cosmetics & Personal Care
      By C. Leigh Broadhurst, Ph.D.
      "...That a doctor would've prescribed lindane to anyone -- much less someone who
      is pregnant -- is criminal. Lindane is a cancer-causing, neurotoxic pesticide. ..."
      Also, see Xenoestrogens in Cosmetics in this article. -- barb

      Notice the assurances from links below. At the same time, think about how many times you
      have read or heard that one-word non-explanation explanation, "UNEXPLAINED," when our
      experts have been asked WHY? Why are there skyrocketing rates of asthma? Why are there
      soaring rates of cancers? Why are there escalating cases of ADD and Autism? Why are there so
      many reproductive, pregnancy and new born health problems? WHY???? -- barb

    • Assurances by Industry
      • American Chemistry Council's Phthalates site


        • Panel Reaffirms Phthalates In Cosmetics are "Safe for Use"
          "November 19, 2002 -- In a triumph for science-based evidence over scare tactics, an
          independent panel reviewing the safety of phthalates in cosmetics has concluded that
          these compounds can continue to be used safely in high-quality cosmetics and personal
          care products. ..."
          SCARE TACTICS? or CAVEAT EMPTRO! The consumer has a right to know what's in
          products used on the body and that become one with the air all must breathe. -- barb


      • Breast Cancer Fund - Environmental Health / Phthalates
        • Chemical Fact Sheets: PHTHALATES
          "Phthalates are a versatile class of chemicals that are widely used in consumer products to
          soften plastics, carry fragrances, and act as solvents and fixatives. ..."


        • Chemical Offender: DBP
          Cosmetics Ingredient Raises Risk for Breast Cancer and Birth Defects

          "... Because DBP is used in some cosmetics products, especially nail polishes and perfumes,
          its ability to inhibit tamoxifen-induced apoptosis (cell death) could affect women with
          breast cancer who take the drug to prevent recurrence. Sometimes DBP is not listed as an
          ingredient on product labelsãphthalates are often concealed in the term 'fragrance.' ..."


        • Safer Cosmetics for California Workers & Consumers - Support AB 908 (Chu)
          "... Because phthalates are often used as a fragrance component, even an
          educated consumer cannot use the label to avoid them. A 2002 study of
          cosmetics labeling found phthalates in 52 of 72 products tested, yet not
          one of the products listed the phthalate on its label.Ý

          In the absence of FDA authority, the cosmetics industry sponsors a panel of
          scientists called the Cosmetic Ingredient Review. This panel has
          exonerated phthalates, resting its conclusion on a number of dubious
          findings.Ý The CIR cites, for example, a 'safe dose' level based on a 51 year
          old rat mortality study that does not reflect any of the scientific findings
          of the last five years that demonstrate effects on developing reproductive
          systems. The FDA, unmoved by the extensive work of its European
          counterparts, has cited the panel¼s work in claiming on its website that
          there is „no reasonä to be alarmed¾ by phthalates. ..."
          Come on folks, get smart. Look for the word "fragrance" or "parfume" on the label and if you see
          it, refuse to buy that product. There ARE safer alternatives. The only problem is that you can be
          too easily fooled by the industry's allowed prevarications . . . "fragrance-free" or "unscented."
          Products are allowed to be so called, even though they contain masking scent. Unfair to the
          health of millions. So look for products that are not afraid to list their ingredients! -- barb


        Dibutyl Phthalate
        From EWG's report, via the UK
        "Dibutyl Phthalate is just one ingredient in an alphabet soup of pollutants that
        contaminate every person in the industrialized world! "

      • Campaign for Safe Cosmetics

        May 27, 2005


          "... Currently, the FDA does not review cosmetic ingredients for their safety
          before they come to market, nor does it have the authority to recall
          hazardous products. SB 484 will:Ý
          • ÝRequire cosmetics manufacturers to disclose to the state any product ingredient that
            is on state or federal lists of chemicals that cause cancer or birth defects.
          • ÝAllow the state Department of Health Services (DHS) to demand manufacturers
            supply any health related information about cosmetic ingredients.
          • ÝAuthorize CalOSHA to regulate the products to protect salon workers if they
            determine a safety risk.Ý

          The author of SB 484, Senator Carole Migden (D-San Francisco), applauded
          Governor Schwarzenegger¼s action: 'This is the strongest bill in the
          nation to protect cosmetics consumers.Ý It will go a long way to protect
          public health.'Ý"
          So, I ask, where's the proof that this bill is being enacted? -- barb


      • DEHP
        July 10, 2002 -- "Some Incorrect Statements by Health Care Without Harm"
        " is an initiative of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI)
        Notice this is the date that Not Too Pretty was released AND this is by the industry! -- barb

        Beauty Secrets - Does A Common Chemical (Dibutyl Phthalates) In Nail Polish AND
        Personal Care Products Pose Risks To Human Health?

        Courtesy of E N V I R O N M E N T A L W O R K I N G G R O U P


      • Environmental Health Perspectives
        Volume 105, Number 8, August 1997
        The Estrogenic Activity of Phthalate Esters In Vitro
        Catherine A. Harris, 1 Pirkko Henttu, 2 Malcolm G. Parker, 2 and John P. Sumpter 1
        1 Department of Biology and Biochemistry,
        Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom
        2 Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund,
        London, United Kingdom

        A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a
        recombinant yeast screen. A selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on
        estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially
        available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative
        potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP)>dibutyl phthalate
        (DBP)>diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP)>diethyl phthalate (DEP)>diisononyl phthalate
        (DINP). Potencies ranged from approximately 1 10 6 to 5 10 7 times less than 17þ-
        estradiol. The phthalates that were estrogenic in the yeast screen were also mitogenic on
        the human breast cancer cells. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed no
        estrogenic activity in these in vitro assays. A number of metabolites were tested,
        including mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate,
        mono- n -octyl phthalate; all were found to be inactive. One of the phthalates, ditridecyl
        phthalate (DTDP), produced inconsistent results; one sample was weakly estrogenic,
        whereas another, obtained from a different source, was inactive. Analysis by gel
        chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the preparation exhibiting estrogenic
        activity contained 0.5% of the ortho -isomer of bisphenol A. It is likely that the
        presence of this antioxidant in the phthalate standard was responsible for the generation
        of a dose-response curve--which was not observed with an alternative sample that
        had not been supplemented with o , p ¥-bisphenol A--in the yeast screen; hence,
        DTDP is probably not weakly estrogenic. The activities of simple mixtures of BBP, DBP,
        and 17þ-estradiol were assessed in the yeast screen. No synergism was observed,
        although the activities of the mixtures were approximately additive. In summary, a
        small number of phthalates are weakly estrogenic in vitro . No data has yet been
        published on whether these are also estrogenic in vivo ; this will require tests using
        different classes of vertebrates and different routes of exposure. Key words :
        contaminated standards, estrogenicity, MCF-7, metabolites, phthalates, recombinant
        yeast screen, ZR-75. Environ Health Perspect 105:802-811 (1997).
        Address correspondence to C.A. Harris
        Department of Biology and Biochemistry
        Brunel University
        Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, U.K.

      • Environmental Working Group
          Pregnancy Concerns
          "Therefore, based on demonstrated reproductive and developmental toxicity
          associated with dermal and other exposures, these ingredients are considered
          unsafe for use in cosmetic formulations.

          ã Cosmetic industry safety panel's findings on ethoxyethanol acetate (CIR 2003),
          an ingredient that continues to be used in Anna Sui nail color 105"
          Information on phthalates, which are commonly used in fragrances to make the scent last. -- barb

          June 14, 2004 -- Environmental Working Group's investigation: A safety assessment of
          ingredients in personal care products . . . Fragrances

          "... Based on their experience in treating people sensitized to cosmetics, the American
          Academy of Dermatology recommends that sensitized patients use only fragrance-free
          products, and avoid all perfumes, colognes, after-shaves, fingernail care products,
          and hair spray (AAD 2000). ..." The Petition begins at

          Poisoned Cosmetics, Not Too Pretty
          Environmental Working Group's Phthalates Facts


      • Health Care Without Harm
        International Fragrance Association
        PHTHALATES in COSMETIC PRODUCTS; July 16, 2002
        "A coalition of three US-based activist groups: Environmental Working Group, Coming Clean & Health Care without Harm has launched a concerted attack on cosmetics containing 'Phthalates' ... . " ... In June 2002 the scientific advisory committee to the European Commission in
        matters of consumer protection with respect to cosmetics and non-food products
        (SCCNFP) has issued an opinion on the use of diethyl phthalate in cosmetic products
        (SCCNFP/0411/01, final, attached to the lL). The conclusions reached in this opinion are
        that the safety profile of DEP supports its use in cosmetic products at current levels
        [Emphasis added.] "Therefore the continued use of diethyl phthalate is completely consistent with
        independent expert opinion in all aspects relating to the safety of consumers.

        "Questions about the safety in use of other phthalates (which have little use in fragrance
        manufacture) will remain subject to further investigations. Attempts by the above
        mentioned activist groups to increase the amplitude of the "problem" by attacking
        cosmetics containing DEP are as deceptive as attacking the sale of carbonated water on
        the basis that carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are members of the same family."
        Downloadable from:


          " [A]t current levels" -- That has long been one of the contentions of industry. No one seems
          capable of answering my questions: Why -- if fragrances are deemed safe, with their
          combinations of tens to hundreds of mainly petrochemical derivatives -- Why is it that no one can
          account for the soaring rates of reproductive problems, of asthma, of cancer, etc.? The chemical/ medical industry falls behind that one-word, non-explanation explaination: UNEXPLAINED.

          Of course, the experts -- industry, government, medical -- also fail to look at the effects of
          combinations of chemicals in any one product; the effects of these unsubstantiated for safety
          chemical products upon us at cellular level; and they ignore the plethora of perfumed products
          applied to any one body, which then escape to pollute the ambient air for all, regardless of the
          health status of others. Industry reassurances without proof are not good enough for me. I hail
          from the Show Me! state. -- barb

      • iThyroid's info on Phthalates


      • Pediatricians call for more action on phthalates
        By Keith Mulvihill; Reuters Health; 4 June 2003


      • Phthalates in indoor-PVC causes Allergy
        Chemical Awareness;Free monthly NGO Newsletter on European Chemicals Policy
        Issue # 12, December 1st 2000
        By Christian Ege, The Danish Ecological Council
        "On 10th November, Gunnar Damgaard Nielsen of the Danish National Institute of
        Occupational Health released the results of a study on phthalates from PVC construction
        materials - flooring and wall lining. The results will be published later.

        "There is an evaporation of phthalates in the buildings, and the phthalates can be measured
        in dust. The study shows that such dust with phthalates can promote allergy in mice, and
        the Institute concludes that this would most probably also be the case for humans.
        The findings are supported by a recent Norwegian study, and the results are quite
        interesting, considering the rapidly rising prevalence of asthma and allergy in the
        population, especially in the affluent Western countries. Many have wondered what
        could be the reasons, and phthalates from PVC building materials is one of the potential
        answers. Several of these substances are also suspected endocrine disrupters. The
        new results support the efforts to phase out phthalates. "
        I wonder if they've considered the phthalates commonly added to fragrances to make the scent last??? -- barb

      • Phthalate Monoester Levels in the Urine of Young Children
        Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 68:309‚314.
        Brock, JW, SP Caudill, MJ Silva, LL Needham, and ED Hilborn. 2002
        " ... The types of phthalates detected suggest that exposure is via consumer products such
        as fragrance-containing soaps, shampoos and perfumes, as well as nail polish and
        beauty products. The presence of MEHP indicates that another route of exposure was
        via DEHP-containing toys. ..."
        Folks, if the health of your future generations and the health of this planet, not to mention your
        own health, is important to you, look for safer, fragrance-free products. The already chemically
        injured successfully clean, cook, garden, live, without use of petrochemical-derived flavors and
        fragrances or pesticides. YOU can too! Copy us, we've shown the way. -- barb




      • The Australian
        "Infertility chemical in perfumes"
        From The Sunday Times; 25nov02
        " HIGH levels of a chemical blamed for causing infertility in men have been found in
        some of the world's best-known perfumes and cosmetics.

        Chanel No 5, Christian Dior's Poison, Eternity from Calvin Klein and Tresor by
        Lancome were among 34 toiletries found by a Swedish study to contain di-ethylhexyl
        phthalate or other phthalates. ...",5942,5553328,00.html


      • CorpWatch
        USA: Cosmetics Industry Approves Controversial Chemicals
        By Cat Lazaroff; Environment News Service; November 20, 2002

        EcoISP - Environmental News Service


      • Environmental Health Perspectives
        Volume 107, Number S6; December 1999
        Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment:
        Agents of Subtle Change?

        By Christian G. Daughton and Thomas A. Ternes


      • GIST Magazine, Wednesday, 11 Dec 2002
        Snippets of news items, such as:
        " Sperm Wail
        "Next time you're perusing the cosmetics counter at Macy's or the
        personal-care aisle of CVS, you might want to take a pass on the lip liner
        and aftershave. According to new research conducted by scientists at the
        Harvard School of Public Health, exposure to monoethyl phthalate, a
        chemical commonly used in cosmetics and fragrances, may lead to DNA
        damage in men's sperm. Other studies have linked chemicals in the
        phthalates family to birth defects in animals, but this is one of the first
        studies on the effects of phthalates in humans. The finding comes just
        weeks after a controversial decision by the U.S. Cosmetic Ingredient
        Review panel, an industry-backed watchdog, to allow the continued use
        of three types of phthalates in personal-care products and perfumes,
        with assertions that the chemical uses were safe. The new study,
        published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, does not
        indicate whether sperm damage from monoethyl phthalate could lead to
        infertility or birth defects. "


      • Harvard School of Public Health
        • Russ Hauser, Associate Professor of Occupational Health
          Department of Environmental Health
          "... 3. Investigating the relationship between male reproductive health and phthalates.
          Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used to hold color and scent in consumer and
          personal care products, and to soften a wide range of plastics, including medical products
          made with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates are also present in drinking water,
          air and food. Evidence of widespread exposure of the U.S. population to phthalates comes
          from two recent CDC reports using NHANES data. ..."


      • Health Effects of Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) - Effects in Laboratory Animals
        Environmental Working Group


      • Health Care Without Harm


      • Dr. Mercola


      • National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals - Phthalates
        CDC National Center for Environmental Health ; 21mar01
        " This is one section of four including Metals, Tobacco Smoke,
        Organophosphate Pesticides, and Phthalates "



      • CDC - Centers for Disease Control and PREVENTION)


        • Phthalates
          Mono-ethyl phthalate. People exposed to diethyl phthalate will excrete
          mono-ethyl phthalate in their urine. The amount of mono-ethyl phthalate is an
          indicator of how much contact with diethyl phthalate has occurred. Diethyl phthalate
          is an industrial solvent used in many consumer products, particularly those containing
          fragrances. Products that may contain diethyl phthalate include perfume, cologne,
          bar soap, shampoo, and hand lotion. return to top
          [emphasis added. -- barb]

          Mono-butyl phthalate. People exposed to dibutyl phthalate will excrete mono-
          butyl phthalate in their urine. The amount of mono-butyl phthalate is an indicator of
          how much contact with dibutyl phthalate has occurred. Dibutyl phthalate is an industrial
          solvent used in many consumer products. Products that may contain dibutyl
          phthalate include nail polishes, cosmetics, and insecticides.
          [emphasis added. -- barb]

          Mono-benzyl phthalate. People exposed to benzylbutyl phthalate will excrete
          mono-benzyl phthalate in their urine. The amount of mono-benzyl phthalate is an
          indicator of how much contact with benzylbutyl phthalate has occurred. Benzylbutyl
          phthalate is an industrial solvent used in many consumer products such as adhesives,
          sealants, cosmetics, and car-care products.
          [emphasis added. -- barb]

          National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals


      • CERHR - Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction of NIEHS


      • Chemical Awareness
        ¾How can I identify phthalate containing products?¾
        Editor's Corner; Issue 4



      • Coming Clean


      • Chemical linked to sperm damage
        Phthalates may harm human DNA, researchers say

        "Dec. 9 [2002] ã Everyday exposure to a chemical ingredient used
        to preserve many cosmetics and soften plastics like those
        used in baby toys may contribute to sperm damage in adult
        men, according to a study published Monday.

        For more info, see -- barb

      • Dear Paula, The Cosmetic Cop
        Query regarding phthalates in nail polish. -- barb


      • Ecology Center


      • EHN's Citizens' Petition before the FDA -- Fragrance Analysis
        May 2003 - the petition is still open and accepting comments. Please write to the
        FDA about your adverse reactions to fragrances. Phthalates make the scents last, but
        as they bioaccumulate, they too last. Last in your body, your child's body, downstream.
        Reference "Docket Number 99P-1340/CP 1" and E-mail to:

        When word came out about phthalates in plastic toys and bottles and seen as the link to children
        adversely affected by these hormone disrupters, Betty Bridges, RN and I wrote . . . and wrote
        . . . a n d    w r o t e! We wanted to make sure that the organizations and individuals who
        were concerned about phthalates being a major part of plastics (used to soften) were also
        aware that phthalates were also a very commonly used fragrance ingredient (to make them last).
        Whether our letters had any bearing on the L@@K into fragrances or not, we don't know. But
        even if the petition is never paid attention to by the US FDA, it at least let us know to look at the
        harmful effects of phthalates. Two other easily overlooked but commonly used fragrance
        ingredients are the musks and coumarin. You can check out what I've found on both for the info
        is available as links through EHN's site. However, please keep in mind, information on EHN's
        site may be called extensive, but it certainly is not exhaustive. Continue your research by
        visiting Betty's site, the renowned Fragrance Products Information Network  -- barb

      • Environews by Topic: Table of Contents


      • Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones by
        Environmental Concepts Made Easy (ECME)


      • Environmental Health Perspectives
        Betty Bridges, RN, and I found phthalates in fragrances back in 1998, when preparing EHN's
        FDA petition 99P-1340. Others were thinking only of phthalates in plastics at the time. -- barb

        • The Association between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and
          Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case-Control Study


        • A Variety of Environmentally Persistent Chemicals,
          Including Some Phthalate Plasticizers, Are Weakly Estrogenic


        • Decrease in Anogenital Distance Among Male Infants with
          Prenatal Phthalate Exposure

          Environmental Health Perspectives 113: 1056-106; Number 8, August 2005
          "... Diesters of phthalic acid, commonly referred to as phthalates, are widely used in
          industry and commerce; they are used in personal care products (e.g., makeup,
          shampoo, and soaps), plastics, paints, and some pesticide formulations. ..."
          Why is it so many people studying PHTHALATES fail to look at the phthalates that are part and
          parcel of petrochemially derived fragrances, regardless of product type in which it is used?
          NO DOUBT ABOUT THAT. -- barb


        • The Estrogenic Activity of Phthalate Esters In Vitro
          Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 8, August 1997


        • The Hazards of Environmental Estrogens
          By Michele L. Trankina on The World & I Online
          "Derived from numerous synthetic and natural sources, substances that
          interfere with normal estrogenic activity in the body have been linked
          to various reproductive abnormalities and cancers."


        • Identification of Phthalate Esters in the Serum of Young Puerto Rican Girls
          with Premature Breast Development

          Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 108, Number 9, September 2000


        • Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population
          Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 108, Number 10, October 2000
          Please note: Phthalic acid, diethyl ester; 10.5 percent of fragrance portion of formula;
          CAS # 84-66-2 -- found in analyses of fragrances for FDA Petition

        • Prenatal phthalate exposure and anogenital distance in male infants.


        • The Relationship Between Environmental Exposures to Phthalates and
          DNA Damage in Human Sperm Using the Neutral Comet Assay

          Susan M. Duty, Narendra P. Singh, Manori J. Silva, Dana B. Barr, John W. Brock,
          Louise Ryan, Robert F. Herrick, David C. Christiani, and Russ Hauser


      • Environmental Working Group (EWG)


      • FDA: Phthalates and Cosmetic Products; April 19, 2001
        "...FDA believes that at the present time there is no reason for consumers to be alarmed
        at the use of cosmetics containing phthalates. However, the agency is in the process
        of evaluating the study data to determine whether the levels described in the CDC report
        are a health concern. ..."


      • Germany Plans Ban on Baby Toys Containing Phthalates


      • Health Care Without Harm
        Their search will turn up a list of PDF files for you to download. -- barb

        The Indianapolis Star - Saturday, August 26, 2000
        CDC eyes chemicals' level in humans
        Amounts of phthalates, oft-used substances linked to birth defects, are
        higher than expected.
        By Daniel P. Jones - The Hartford Courant

        LA Times
        "Widely used industrial compounds, called phthalates, are linked by researchers to
        changes in the reproductive organs of male infants."
        By Marla Cone; Los Angeles Times, May 27, 2005
        "... In the first study of humans exposed in the womb to phthalates, the researchers, who
        examined the genitalia of male babies and toddlers, found a strong relationship
        between the chemicals and subtle changes in the size and anatomy of the children's
        genitals. Phthalates are ubiquitous compounds used as softeners in plastics and to
        maintain color and fragrance in beauty products such as nail polish and
        perfume, among other uses. ..."
        (Emphasis added; for after all, what have Betty Bridges and I learned and tried telling the
        world about when EHN filed the citizens' petition 99P-1340 with the US FDA???? -- barb)




      • MSNBC
        • Concerns over chemicals in cosmetics
          Are åplasticizing¼ substances causing health woes?

          By Francesca Lyman; October 4, 2000

          Note, I found this mirrored at . . .

          Our Stolen Future
          Includes many important links you should visit IF you are as concerned about Phthalates, as I
          feel you have a right -- and an obligation -- to be for the health of your children and self ! -- barb

          The following article is about fragrances, and includes information about phthalates
          To see the duplicity of the fragrance industry in action, read,
          "Scents and sensitivities ...," in which you will see the industry
          assuring us on the one hand that their products are "thoroughly
          tested before being marketed" and on the other, the same industry rep
          states they have "begun the first study to examine fragrance inhalation."


        • Scents and sensitivities
          What to know before buying a Valentine¼s Day perfume

          By Francesca Lyman; Feb. 6, 2002; MSNBC CONTRIBUTOR
          Notice, the industry says it tests its products . . . and then states it has BEGUN testing.
          Can't have it both ways, me thinks! -- barb

          Mirrored by EHN through kind permission of Ms. Francesca Lyman and MSNBC

          Formerly at

          And, of course, do study the FDA Petition, in which EHN requests
          that the FDA follow its regulations already on its books to require
          warning labels on fragrances released to market without adequate
          testing . . . and then write to the FDA! They will have to be overwhelmed
          by letters from the public before they seriously consider following their
          mission. Notice #2 "cosmetics are safe and properly labeled," and
          #4 "As determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, carry out
          paragraphs (1) through (3) in consultation with experts in science,
          medicine, and public health, and in cooperation with consumers,
          users, manufacturers, importers, packers, distributors and retailers
          of regulated products." -- barb

        • FDA's Mission


        Folks you've heard it first from FPIN and EHN through the FDA Petition, Docket Number
        99P - 1340. Now you hear it from Coming Clean, Environmental Working Group and Health Care
        Without Harm: Fragrances contain phthalates. . . and a whole lot more worrisome chemicals.
        Be sure to check this site for updates on how phthalates affect men's fertility. -- barb


      • Our Stolen Future
      • Phthalates
        Brought to you by
        "iThyroid--the Internet center for the investigation of the nutritional
        correction of Thyroid Disease."

        Phthalates Linked to Sperm Damage
        LAURA MacINNIS / Reuters 10dec02


      • Pioneer Planet
        Study finds body absorbs common, risky chemicals
        "Phthalates from makeup, solvents highest in women"


      • Rachel's
        #708 - Here We Go Again, September 14, 2000
        " Phthalates: Here We Go Again"


      • San Francisco Chronicle
        Cal-EPA to pass rule on chemical used in plastics
        Agent found in hospitals, toys, may cause birth defects

        by Jane Kay, Chronicle Environment Writer; Oct. 21, 2003

        printer friendly


      • The Science and Environmental Health Network
        • Article II. Phthalates: Asking The Right Questions
          By Nancy Myers
          "[Dr. Ted] Schettler's informed guess is that the gravest new concern may be about
          phthalates used in cosmetics, personal care products, and fragrances."


        • Beyond Democratization Of Risk Assessment: An Alternative To Risk Assessment
          By Mary H. O'Brien
          I must admit I've at least two red flags that outdo any that any bull has ever charged . . .
          "'Sound' science" and "Risk Assessment." barb sez, This is a MUST read!


      • ScienceNewsOnline


      • Seattle Times
      • Studies Link Class of Chemicals to Certain Medical Risks
        Feb 10, 2004 3:54PM Knight-Ridder / Tribune Business News
        " A group of common chemicals found in indoor air, some perfumes and plastic tubing
        used in hospitals may be more prevalent and dangerous than previously thought -- with
        pregnant women and infants especially at risk, new studies say.

        "New research on the substances, called phthalates (pronounced THAL-aytes), finds that
        at least one type can disrupt the human hormone system -- putting pregnant women
        at risk for delivering premature babies, damaging sperm in some men, and harming
        reproductive systems of children.

        "Recent studies also refute the notion that humans are only exposed to phthalates orally;
        the studies have established that indoor exposure to the chemical is more widespread
        than previously thought and that modest levels of some phthalates can be harmful. ..."
        Actually, phthalates are commonly found in perfumes and fragrances because they
        help make that scent last on the ambient air. Consider for a moment, all those fragrance
        products you use and are subjected to from those used by others. -- barb


      • Time Magazine
        "Teens Before Their Time: With budding breasts and pubic hair, girls are developing
        earlier than ever. What's causing it? And what are the psychological effects?"

        By Michael D. Lemonick; OCTOBER 30, 2000; Vol. 156, No. 18 [in 4 parts],3266,58388,00.html


        Beauty Coverup?

        A Cosmetic Ingredient Is Linked to Animal Defects. Its Human Risks Are Less Clear

        By Brian Reid, Special to The Washington Post
        Tuesday, November 26, 2002; Page F1
        "Phthalates, chemical substances that make plastic more flexible without reducing its
        strength, are an all-but-inescapable part of life in the 21st century. They're used in toys,
        garden hoses, shower curtains and medical devices. They're also common
        ingredients in beauty products, making nail polish chip-resistant and making
        hair spray keep a bouffant in line. ..."
        AND, phthalates make the odor of synthetic fragrance chemical concoctions last longer. -- barb

        Printer friendly

        -- end phthalates section --

        Return to FDA Petition


      Also, see Doctors

      Physicains for Social Responsibility (PSR)

      Pierce's disease
      YOU have until May 17, 2002 to get your comments in on the DEIR
      regarding urban and rural pesticide spraying for the GWSS, which can be
      controlled by safer means.

      See EHN's Act Now!, Glassy-winged Sharpshooter and "Pest" Mgt & Pesticide Info
    • Dr. David Pimentel


      Pine Sol®
        Pine Sol® - FAQs
      • Pine Sol -Cornell MSDS
        "The information in this document is compiled from information maintained by the
        United States Department of Defense (DOD). Anyone using this information is solely
        reponsible for the accuracy and applicability of this information to a particular use or
        situation. Cornell University does not in any way warrant or imply the applicability,
        viability or use of this information to any person or for use in any situation. ..."



          Notice the "NO" under 'Inhalation." This stuff is made and advertised to be smelled, yet there's
          no information about effects caused through inhalation at primary level of use. Not a thought
          in the world is given to effects due to inhalation at secondary and tertiary levels of exposure. -- barb

            Health Hazards Acute & Chronic:

            Signs & Symptoms of Overexposure:
            EYE IRRITATION

            Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure:

            LD50 LC50 Mixture: ORAL LD50 (RATS) > 5.0 G/KG

            Route of Entry Indicators:

              Inhalation: NO
              Skin: YES
              Ingestion: NO

            Carcenogenicity Indicators
              NTP: NO
              IARC: NO
              OSHA: NO

            Carcinogenicity Explanation: THIS COMPOUND CONTAINS NO INGREDIENTS AT

            Now, notice "INHALATION" under First Aid Measures . . . -- barb
            Section 4 - First Aid Measures
            PINE-SOL CLEANER

            First Aid:


      • Pine Sol® by Clorox - MSDS
        Now, folks, Pine Sol® is inhaled, yet on the MSDS under Health Hazard Data they give us:
          Route Of Entry - Inhalation: NO
          Route Of Entry - Skin: NO
          Route Of Entry - Ingestion: YES
        "...Health Haz Acute And Chronic: EYE IRRITANT. POSSIBLE ASPIRATION HAZARD IF
        ... "Signs/Symptoms Of Overexp: IRRITATION
        Emergency/First Aid Proc: EYES: FLUSH IMMEDIATELY W/WATER FOR 15 MINUTES.

        ... these "NOs" don't mean there are no adverse effects upon inhalation, it means they
        supposedly don't know, haven't tested . . . -- barb

      PIRG (Public Interest Research Groups)

      Pink Disease Support Group (aka: ACRODYNIA, Erythoedema, or FEER's disease or SWIFT's disease. or... Hg mercury poisoning in infants)

    • Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It

      Plain Language (instead of "governmentese" intro from EPA's site)

      It seems the change in administration meant a change in various EPA pages, too.
      I was able to retrive this page through the Wayback Machine at


      Planet Drum Foundation

      Planet Mobility


      Plantar Wart

      Plastic Bottles
      Information provided by Ginger of



      American Heritage Dictionary: POISON - A substance that causes injury, illness, or death, especially by chemical means. -- barb

      June 1992: Polar Organic Compounds in Fragrances of Consumer Products (RTI/EPA)

      March 1991: Identification of Polar Volatile Organic Compounds in Consumer Products
      and Common Microenvironments

      Polioand Post Polio

      Political Ecology Group
      Folks, there's a decline in pollinators AND birds, which also are pollinators. Go organic!
      Encourage organic farming by buying their products for your table. But going organic also
      means your home garden -- flowers or food. Pesticides do not limit themselves to killing what you
      may think of as "bad" bugs. And remember, birds feed on bugs, so if your pesticides kill off
      the bugs, the birds cannot eat. Work with Mother Nature, not against her. -- barb

      • Insects of Hawaii
      • The Pollination Home Page


      • Quarter of U.S. Birds in Decline, Says Audubon
        John Pickrell for National Geographic News;November 5, 2002
        "A quarter of all bird species in the United States have declined in population since the
        1970s, according to a report issued by the National Audubon Society. ..."
        There we have it again . . . the 1970s. Bird population decline; for people, chronic
        illnesses soar. -- barb


      • Worldwatch Paper #165: Winged Messengers: The Decline of Birds - March 10, 2003


          Regarding the paper, above, I received the following letter in answer to my excerpted query:
            ..I'll assume you are referring to birds being killed
            outright by pesticides. But I wonder if there isn't also another
            angle. What about pesticides effect on the food supply of the birds?
            Birds eat bugs. If we are so frantically killing off bugs with our
            array of pesticides, we are getting the good bugs, and the "bad"
            bugs, hence we are depriving the birds of their food supply. And then
            there's not just pesticides but GM products . . . I wonder if they,
            too, play a role in the demise of our birds. ...
          Mr. Youth was kind enough to grant permission to post his response here. -- barb

          Ms. Wilkie,

          Thanks so much for your thoughtful email. Your question is a good one. My
          immediate answer would be that any land use that minimizes or destroys
          birds' food sources and resting and nesting places can place birds at risk,
          depending upon the species.

          Pesticides can both directly harm birds (killing or weakening them or their
          young) and deprive them of important food and shelter (I'm speaking here
          both of insecticides and herbicides). These effects play out with
          particular strength on grassland species that have adapted to agricultural
          landscapes. Usually in such cases (larks, certain sparrows, meadowlarks,
          bustards, sandgrouse...), birds have been able to find food and breed in
          farm fields or pastures that have replaced once-widespread, now rare
          grasslands. Again, the effects and scenarios vary by species and region.
          For example, great bustards--birds now gone from most of their range across
          Eurasia--can nest in cereal fields, but find much of their food in alfalfa
          fields or adjacent pastures thick with weeds. When cereals are replaced by
          sunflowers, the birds lose out, while visiting finches may find a banquet
          (depending upon the herbicides or pesticides in use). When herbicides cut
          back on weeds and their seeds (important bustard food) and insecticides
          kill beetles and other insects young bustards depend upon for protein,
          bustard populations can dive even if the area appears ideal for them.

          I've not come across hard data on adverse effects on birds relating to GM
          crops. I would imagine that there will be such studies soon, if indeed some
          aren't out there already. I will certainly keep my eyes out for such
          information. In the meantime, I leave you with the general answer that land
          use that encourages monoculture and not a patchwork of different habitats
          often cuts back on bird diversity. Within a habitat, pesticide use cuts
          down on birds' food supply and some chemicals kill large numbers of birds.
          Much depends upon the chemicals used, the land use patterns and overall
          landscape, and bird species native to the area and their adaptability.

          Thanks very much. I hope this message is helpful.


          Howard Youth



      Use your browser's find command, as pollution is covered througout this page. -- b arb

      Popcorn-- Flavorings (CHEMICALS)
      Population Data
      As with all medical, legal, product, etc. information, EHN simply makes this info available.
      It is incumbent upon you to do your own research and decide which path to travel along with
      the assistance of your own experts. I wish you safe travel. -- barb


      Postal Info

      A tip: Use regular mail to reach EHN. Do not use expensive, faster services.

      When dealing with organizations, such as EHN, who have post office boxes, save yourself
      the extra money by sending items by regular mail. Express mail and priority only work
      if you know that the person receiving the item is expecting it and will go to the post
      box daily. EHN collects mail roughly twice a month. When convenient -- or as health
      allows -- once a week. Sending items to us by Express Mail -- or in any large package --
      adds an extra burden. We have got to make sure we get to the post office during their
      working hours, as the larger items cannot fit in our very tiny post box. Thank you! -- barb


      Regarding scent strips . . .

      Why doesn't the Post Office refuse to accept magazines with leaking scent strips or scented
      paper? Certainly the health of their employees would improve -- how many postal workers lose
      time due to headaches, rhinits, sinusitis, asthma, cold- and flu-like symptoms? And those of us
      who are already chemically injured won't have to worry about being assaulted by scented mail
      arriving at our house. Scents not only stink up magazines they are in, but all other mail! And
      the scent lasts for years! Why? In part, because of phthalates. Phthalates?See Not Too Pretty.

      So far, the already chemically injured, the harbingers, have been ignored as we have tried to claim
      our right to be free of perfume-poisoned mail, magazines, newspapers and other advertising
      tricks, including scented pages in books. While we are ignored, more people get sick. Seriously
      Perfume pollution takes its toll on health, and it has also taken lives.

      It is high time for advertisers that do not use scented advertising to stand up against harmful,
      scented ads. Why? Because scented advertising means that ALL of the mail, or newspapers or
      magazines must be removed from the household and cast aside without notice. It only takes one
      polluting ad to make unsafe the entire contents of one's mailbox, the newspaper, or magazines --
      even those one would hope to buy from a newstand. Safer advertising is ignored in the wake
      of the harmful perfume pollution of a few ads.

      Those of us who are made ill by the volatilizing chemicals from perfumed paper or scent strips
      should WRITE. Use the following information tomake a formal complaint with the Postal Service,
      or newspaper, magazines, department store advertising fillers. The law is unenforced, likely
      even unknown, but that's because so few take the time to file a complaint or write a letter. -- barb

      • USPS Complaint Form


      • Inform your local PostMaster


      • California Attorney General Bill Lockyer

        SECTION 110390-110420 (Fragrance advertising agents)

        SECTION 110390-110420;
        Go to California Law

        Click on "Health and Safety Code" in the left hand column, key in the word
        "fragrance" and click the search button. Scroll to the bottom of the page.

          110420. (a) Any fragrance advertising insert contained in a
          newspaper, magazine, mailing, or other periodically printed material
          shall contain only microencapsulated oils. Glue tabs or binders
          shall be used to prevent premature activation of the fragrance
          advertising insert.

          "Fragrance advertising insert" means a printed piece with
          encapsulated fragrance applied to it that is activated by opening a
          flap or removing an overlying ply of paper.

          Paperstocks employed in the manufacture of fragrance advertising
          inserts shall have a maximum porosity of 20 Sheffield units or 172
          Gurley-Hill units.

          (b) Any person who distributes fragrance advertising inserts in
          violation of this section, is guilty of an infraction and shall, if
          convicted, be subject to a fine of one hundred dollars ($100) for
          each distribution. The fine shall apply to each mass mailing or
          distribution, and to each mass publication of a magazine or newspaper
          in violation of this section. The fine shall not apply, however, to
          each individual letter, magazine, newspaper, or fragrance
          advertising insert so distributed. Section 111825 is not applicable
          to violations of this section.

          (c) This section shall become operative on January 1, 1992.


        Assistance and Talk List on Workers' Compensation
        OWCP-Disability Retirement-EEO-MSPB-Etc.

        Leaking scent strips . . . and the US Mail
        Folks, YOU have got to let YOUR feelings be known. It doesn't do any good for the USPS to keep
        hearing from me on this subject. USPS has got to hear from you, too. -- barb

        Postal Regulations concerning scented mail
        Julia Kendall was on this YEARS ago! Why was nothing ever done to protect
        public health? Why are people nine years later still being subjected to assault by chemical
        fragrances strips in mail? I've written the USPS time and again, suggesting they return all
        odorovecting mail to the sender, with fines attached. I never hear a word back.

        See Making Sense of Scents compiled by Julia Kendall --
        the regulation is in Postal regulations, Domestic Mail Manual, 124.395 Fragrance
        Advertising Samples (39 USC 3001 (g) April 1990) state that fragrance strips for
        mailing "cannot be activated except by opening a glued flap or binder or by removing
        an overlying ply of paper."


        Pub. 52, Hazardous, Restricted, and Perishable Mail (Text)

        Hazardous, Restricted, and Perishable Mail
        Publication 52 July 1999
        Transmittal Letter
        A. Filing Instructions. This issue of Publication 52 replaces the April 1990 edition, which must be recycled.

        B. Explanation. This publication is revised in accordance with current standards in Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) C020-C024. It is designed for use by postal employees in business mail entry, retail, and marketing who are involved in providing mailability information to postal customers regarding hazardous materials, restricted matter, and perishable matter.

        C. Distribution. Order copies from the material distribution center (MDC) using PS Form 7380, MDC Supply Requisition.

        D. Comments and Questions. Direct comments or questions concerning the content of Publication 52 to:

        475 L'ENFANT PLZ SW RM 6801
        WASHINGTON DC 20260-6808
        E. Effective Date. This edition of Publication 52 is effective July 1999.

        Anita J. Bizzotto
        Vice President
        Marketing Systems
        492.22   Restricted or Improperly Prepared Items
        Other types of unsolicited samples may be nonmailable for other reasons,
        including the following:
          a. The sample is an otherwise restricted item such as a toxic substance or poison subject to the hazardous materials requirements in Chapter 3 and DMM C023.

          b. The sample is improperly prepared for mailing, such as an inadequately packaged razor blade or a household substance that does not comply with the child-resistant packaging required in DMM C024.13.0.

          c. The sample is a pesticide subject to the restrictions in DMM C024.14.0 or a fragrance advertising sample subject to the restrictions in DMM C024.15.0. [ see below]

          d. The sample is an odd-shaped item in a letter-size envelope that is prohibited under DMM C024.18.0.

        493 Customer Objection to Unsolicited Matter
        Customers who object to receiving unsolicited matter should be advised that the Postal Service must accept any lawfully mailable matter that is properly prepared for mailing and bears appropriate postage. [But, sez barb, LEAKING SCENT STRIPS are NOT "lawfully mailable matter that is properly prepared for mailing" -- that's a HUGE difference!]These customers may be directed to contact the mailer or manufacturer to have their names removed from the mailing list. Customers also may be advised they may refuse any piece of mail, either at the time it is offered for delivery or after it is delivered (if unopened), as provided in DMM D042 and POM 611. [But, sez barb, by that time ALL of our mail is contaminated.]

        494 Rulings
        In the category of promotional samples, rulings sometimes can be provided based on the trade name of an item. However, this is not always possible. A generic description, such as razor blade, cleaner, aerosol product, or drug, is insufficient information for determining mailability. To request a ruling on the mailability of restricted matter, furnish the information in 215.3 to the local postmaster.

        If the matter for which the ruling is being requested has the physical characteristics of a toxic substance, flammable liquid, compressed gas, or other hazardous material, a ruling should be requested under the conditions in 215.2.

        Now, what I'd like to know is, has the US Postal Service ever sent back a bunch of mail with
        leaking scent strips? Their regulations, 39 USC 3001(g) following, show that they are to dispose of "nonmailable matter," but they do not. What if the Postal Service returned nonmailable matter to the publisher? If publishers had to pay through the nose on this one, I'll bet our mail would not be contaminated as frequently as it is! -- barb


          DMM C024.15.0.
        • 15.0 Fragrance Advertising Sample
          "A fragrance advertising sample (39 USC 3001(g)) [see below], i.e., any matter normally acceptable in the mail but containing a fragrance advertising sample, is permitted in the mail only if it is sealed, wrapped, treated, or otherwise prepared in a manner reasonably designed to prevent individuals from being unknowingly or involuntarily exposed to the sample. A sample meets this requirement if it uses paper stocks with a maximum porosity of 20 Sheffield units or 172 Gurley-Hill units treated exclusively with microencapsulated oils, and if the sample is produced so that it cannot be activated except by opening a glued flap or binder or by removing an overlying ply of paper."


        • 39 USC 3001(g)
          (1) Matter otherwise legally acceptable in the mails which contains or includes a fragrance advertising sample is nonmailable matter, shall not be carried or delivered by mail, and shall be disposed of as the Postal Service directs, unless the sample is sealed, wrapped, treated, or otherwise prepared in a manner reasonably designed to prevent individuals from being unknowingly or involuntarily exposed to the sample.

          (2) The Postal Service shall by regulation establish the standards or requirements which a
          fragrance advertising sample must satisfy in order for the mail matter involved not to
          be considered nonmailable under this subsection.


        Go to USPS or email them at: If you are
        sick (quite literally!) and tired of receiving scented mail, tell them. Please. -- barb

        Posters, Brochures and Flyers

        If you know of others, please inform me. Thanks, barb (Barb's email is no longer valid, please contact EHN)
        Also check out EHN's General Links, page B / Brochures

        Please visit EHN's section on Access if you need help in achieving "cleaner air" in your school,
        workplace, healthcare facility, place of worship, on public transit, etc. -- barb


        Power ...

        Precautionary Principle

        Prednisone - commonly prescribed for severe asthma
        Pregnancy & Frgrances

        Your government does not warn you about the toxins with which our modern synthetic scents
        are concocted. Your medical doctors likely don't know to warn you. Caveat Emptor! EHN's
        site is here for you. Please use it to educate yourself. Why risk harm to your children and
        yourself, for an industry who through its advertising is really telling you that without their
        petrochemical products -- which also take a toll on our environment -- your clean body has a
        stench that can't be tolerated, that you are ugly without using their products, that you'll
        not be able to win your heart's delight, that you'll not climb the corporate ladder, ... do you
        really believe fragrance and cosmetics ads? If not, then look for fragrance-free, eco-friendly products.

        If you feel as we do, that the public should be alerted, please e-mail the FDA who still believes
        fragrances are a low priority issue. Just reference "Docket Number 99P - 1340 and send
        your message to the FDA at

        In the meantime, you can certainly do something about fragrances. Don't buy them until
        they are proven to be made safer. That is happening in Europe. What, we in the USA are not
        as worth protecting as our sisters and brothers in Europe?

        To be sure, the industry assures us that we are safe using their products. But they do not furnish
        any proof that fragrances are safe for inhalation, upon absorption, for the brain and nervous
        system, for systemic effects, won't adversely affect reproduction, for developing embryos and
        fetuses, upon long-term exposure, for secondhand users whose astute doctors have stated the
        impossible: Avoid fragrances!

        That safety we've been assured of down through the years? Those tests? That FDA compliance?
        Ever wonder about that? The focus of the fragrance testing has been for dermatological
        (skin) effects of primary users.
        I kid you not. And, what's more, fragrances effects upon the
        skin have ranked NUMBER ONE for skin irritation from cosmetics. Well, fragrances are also
        known irritants and sensitizers to the respiratory system! Remember, breathing is a major life
        activity . . . according to the ADA. -- barb

        See EHN's sections on three chemicals commonly used in the manufacture of fragrances:

      • Coumarin
        Coumarin is an anticoagulant. Coumarin kills rats. Coumarin causes Fetal Coumarin Syndrome.
        Coumarin enters the body quickly. Coumarin is a commonly used fragrance ingredient.
        But, no one can tell me what effect Coumarin has on developing fetuses when the mother uses it
        as part of her perfume and fragrnce product routine.


      • FDA Petition
        Asks FDA to at the very least require its warning message be affixed to labels of all fragrances
        released to market without substantiation of safety. Includes analyses of fragrances and FDA
        contact information.


      • Musks
        Found stored in breast tissue, then "downstream" in mother's milk. Also found in fish and
        wildlife downstream as these chemicals do not "wash out" during wastetreatment.


      • Phthalates
        Hormone disrupters found to affect sperm. There is also concern over their effect upon
        developing male fetuses


      • Sperm
        EHN's section of information links on studies

        And, while still thinking of phthalates, which are definitiely found in fragrances, not just plastics,
        and which affect men, women and developing male fetuses, visit the site of the report
        Not Too Pretty
        -- barb


      • Tolu
          ALERT to pregnant women . . . and new moms and dads

        • Association of Birth Defect Children

          • E-News Special Alert
            February 28, 2000
            A reporter with a major national news magazine recently contacted
            the ABDC. He is working on a story about neurobehavioral birth
            defects that may be linked to toxic environmental exposures during
            pregnancy. Neurobehavioral birth defects include learning
            disabilities, attention problems, autism and PDD as well as
            behavioral and emotional disorders during childhood.

            If you have a child with a neurobehavioral birth defect that you
            believe was linked to a toxic environmental exposure during your
            pregnancy and you would be interested in being interviewed for this
            story, send an e-mail to Betty Mekdeci .
            Please describe your child's problems and the type of
            environmental exposures you had during your pregnancy.

            This is a very important story that can raise awareness about the
            link between toxics in our environment and the increasing number of
            children being born today with neurobehavioral problems.

            Thank you,

            Betty Mekdeci
            Executive Director
            Assn. of Birth Defect Children

        • Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Apr;63(4):743-8
          Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid.
          Aoshima H, Hamamoto K
          Department of Physics, Biology and Informatics, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Japan.

          "...these results suggest the possibility that the intake of perfume or phytoncid through
          the lungs, the skin or the intestines modulates the neural transmission in the brain
          through ionotropic GABAA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as
          alcohol or tobacco does.
          " (Thanks to Betty Bridges, RN for ferreting out this info! -- barb)

        • Beauty During Pregnancy and Beyond
          M. K. Johnson, Blue Heron Mediaworks


        • Behavioural outcome of school-age children after prenatal exposure to coumarins.
          Wesseling J, Van Driel D, Heymans HS, Van der Veer E, Sauer PJ, Touwen BC, Smrkovsky M


        • Chemical Food Additive Exposure During Pregnancy
          Author: Richard W. Pressinger (M.Ed.)
          Links to Learning Disabilities, ADD and Behavior Disorders
          FeingoldÆ Association of the United States


        • ChemTox



        • Chronic Illness During Pregnancy - Asthma
          InteliHealth - Harvard Medical School


        • Coumarin ...a fragrance chemical, a rodentcide, an anticoagulant,
          which can cause fetal coumarin syndrome. See EHN's
          What I'm trying to learn is if fetal coumarin syndrome is found in cases where the
          mother used perfumes but was not on Coumarin as an anticoagulant. I've yet to
          receive a response to my various queries. Researchers, where are you? -- barb


        • Dr. Mercola's, Do Environmental Chemicals Harm Humans?
          "... exposure to chemicals may pose the greatest threat to pregnant women,
          which then may affect the health of the fetus later in life. ..."


        • EnviroHealthAction
          Toxics and Health - Phthalates


        • Environmental Working Group
          Beauty Secrets - Phthalates
          "Phthalates: regulated as toxic pollutants - but OK in consumer products "


          • Pregnancy Concerns
            "Therefore, based on demonstrated reproductive and developmental toxicity
            associated with dermal and other exposures, these ingredients are considered
            unsafe for use in cosmetic formulations.

            ã Cosmetic industry safety panel's findings on ethoxyethanol acetate (CIR 2003),
            an ingredient that continues to be used in Anna Sui nail color 105"
            Information on phthalates, which are commonly used in fragrances to make the scent last. -- barb


        • Feingold® Association of the United States
          "The dietary connection to better behavior, learning & health"

          • Chemical Food Additive Exposure During Pregnancy
            Author: Richard W. Pressinger (M.Ed.)
            Links to Learning Disabilities, ADD and Behavior Disorders
            FeingoldÆ Association of the United States


          • Perfume and Fragrance Exposure During Pregnancy
            Fragrance Exposure Causes Aggression Hyperactivity and Nerve Damage
            Richard W. Pressinger (M.Ed.)
            Neurotoxicology, Volume 1:221-237, 1979
            "One fragrance chemical used in perfumes, colognes, soaps, detergents and cosmetics
            has been found to damage brain tissue in the laboratory animals tested. The compound,
            called acetyl ethyl tetramethyl tetralin (AETT), was commonly used in the above
            mentioned consumer products until scientists realized the chemical demonstrated serious
            neurotoxic properties. In fact, the chemical was in widespread use as a
            fragrance component in cosmetic, toiletry and soap products for a period of 22 years
            before the problem was detected. The first laboratory evidence of a problem came after researchers
            detected repeated percutaneous exposure to AETT in rats resulted in an extraordinary
            blue discoloration of the skin and internal organs, followed by behavioral changes
            and degeneration of the white matter in the brain. Upon realizing the potential harm
            from this compound, the fragrance industry voluntarily discontinued its use. This
            action was accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early in 1978."
            FeingoldÆ Association of the United States


          • Some Research on Fragrances - Last update 01/20/2002
            This webpage contains not only links to valuable information, but helpful comments too. -- barb


        • Fetal Coumarin Syndrome
          This report refers to use of coumarin as an anticoagulant. I want researchers to look at
          coumarin in fragrances to see if it can cause some of these same abnormalties. -- barb

        • Good Scents Company Safety Page

            Click on Safety Page in their left column, it doesn't have its own URL. -- barb
          • Safety Information
            "... Just a note, personally, if someone is pregnant, we
            would not use any Fragrance, Essential Oil or Aromatherapy items. ..."

            "... Do not consider anything as safe, KEEP AWAY FROM EXTREME HEAT

            "...Please be kind to the people around you when you use perfumes.
            Many perfumes can be irritating and toxic to people with allergies.
            Excess or strong perfume would not be healthy for anyone. I do not
            even smell perfumes at these concentrations in my daily work!"

        • The Hospital for Sick Children (HSC) and the University of Toronto
          Researchers link exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy to an increased risk of
          visual impairment in exposed children


        • "Natural fragrances `can put pregnant women at risk'"
          HONGKONG STANDARD ( Hong Kong Standard ) Lilian Kwok; 04-18-2000
          (Note: pay service. Excerpted:)
          "THE Consumer Council has called for a warning to be carried on the
          packaging of some fragrance products after they were found to
          contain ingredients that are potentially harmful to pregnant women
          and unborn children.

          "The council also found that two of the products contained the
          cancer-causing agent benzene, although the quantity found was within
          accepted safety levels.

          "The findings arise from a test of 66 products, across 18 brands,
          that are extracted from flowers, leaves, fruit seeds or wood and
          marketed for the enhancement of health through inhalation, baths,
          massage and skin application. . . . "


        • Not Too Pretty - Released July 10, 2002
          by Health Care Without Harm, Coming Clean and Environmental Working Group
          This is a must read! While reading, remember, they ONLY tested for phthalates. Fragrances
          are made with between 3,000 and 5,000 inadequately tested chemicals. -- barb


        • Pollutants can reach babies in the womb
          by Anita Manning; from Safe2Use

          "Most natural health practitioners consider that generally all concentrated
          products including essential oils, are best avoided during the first few months
          of pregnancy. ...
          "The commonest problem occurring in early pregnancy which essential oils
          may help is morning sickness. Peppermint oil is an excellent treatment for
          this problem, and simply inhaling the oils vapours from a bowl of hot water
          can relieve the nausea. " Note from barb ... my trick was making a tea of ginger. Worked like a charm for me.


        • Pregnancy and the Crafts Professional
          Hazards and effective precautions for staying safe while you're pregnant
          by Monona Rossol
          You don't have to be a crafts person to find good advice in this. -- barb


        • Pretty Nasty: Phthalates in European Cosmetic Products


        • Protecting the First Environment
          by Sandra Steingraber, Ph.D.


        • Scents Are Not What They Seem
          By Karen Robinson, B. Sc., B.Ed., B.F.A.; UPdate Fall 1997;NSAEHA


        • Scientific advances offer new findings for assessing
          birth defects caused by toxic chemicals, says report

          Scroll about 2/3 way down. -- barb

        • Workplace Solvents Can Harm a Fetus
          "Subtle cognitive problems were found in the children of women exposed to the chemicals
          while on the job, a new study contends.
          Subtle cognitive problems found in children of women exposed to the chemicals
          By Janice Billingsley; HealthDay Reporter
          Folks, remember modern, petrochemical-derived fragrances contain solvents. The Environmental
          Protection Agency found toluene in fragrances. Consider this: Fragrances on your body means
          fragrance petrochemicals and alcohol in your body, and the petrochemical soup benignly
          labeled "fragrance" can adversely affect the baby you are carrying.


        -- end pregnancy and fragrances --


      • Premarin
        Frankly, I've refused all such drugs. Didn't need 'em. Couldn't understand why the
        doctor was pushing them (I go to an HMO, so easily changed doctors). I've also refused
        mammograms. If I ever need special testing, I'll consent to thermography. My body. My
        decisions. Study the information available. Become informed. Discuss with your health
        care practioner. Make YOUR decision. -- barb

        Supporting special needs and vulnerable populations in disaster
        "...Vulnerable people are those who cannot comfortably or safely access and use the
        standard resources offered in disaster preparedness, relief and recovery. For example:
        • a disabled person whose needs cannot be met in a shelter
        • a non-English-speaker who does not understand the order to evacuate
        • a frail elder who cannot lift or carry a disaster supply kit
        • a recent immigrant who is reluctant to ask for help


      • Press Releases
      • Pretty Nasty: Phthalates in European Cosmetic Products


        Preventing Harm

        Pro Se lawsuit - ADA
        Ragged Edge

        "What is a Pro Se Complaint? This is, quite simply, a lawsuit that a person files
        without a lawyer. The ADA Pro Se must be filed in Federal District Court., because
        the ADA is a Federal law. ..."

        See Purchasing

        Cleaner Air Starts With Environmentally Sound Procurement
        Look for low-emitting-VOC, truly fragrance-free or unscented, less hazardous products.
        The reason I qualify "fragrance-free" and "unscented" is that the US Food and Drug
        Administration allows the industry to claim a product is unscented or fragrance-free,
        which nonetheless contain synthetic fragrances, used to mask other objectionable odors.
        We are admonished to read labels that don't mean anything but more confusion!

        While you are thinking cleaner and greener, also think fragrance-free personal care products
        to use and wear. To learn of some of the chemicals from which modern synthetic scents
        are made, visit the FDA Citizens' Petition at barb

        See Organic Foods

        See EHN's links: Consumer Products


      • Product Recalls

      • The Progressive Way
        The Progressive Way is an alliance of social action, community nonprofit organizations from throughout the greater San Francisco Bay Area working together to raise funds through annual workplace payroll deduction and fundraising campaigns.

        Project Censored

        Proposition 65

        DEHP (a phthalate) on California's Prop. 65 list of carcinogens and reproductive toxins


        -- end prop 65 --

        Propylene glycol (PG)
        Used in your food and personal care products, not just in your brake fluid and deicing products! -- barb

        • ATSDR September 1997
          ToxFAQsÅ for
          Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol
          (Glicol de Etileno y Glicol de Propileno)
            Ethylene Glycol 107-21-1
            Propylene Glycol 57-55-6
          " This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about
          ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. For more information, you may call the
          ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series
          of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This
          information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of
          exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how
          you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are

          " HIGHLIGHTS: Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are clear liquids used in
          antifreeze and deicing solutions. Exposure to large amounts of ethylene glycol
          can damage the kidneys, heart, and nervous system. Propylene glycol is
          generally regarded as safe for use in food. Ethylene glycol has been found in at
          least 34, and propylene glycol in at least 5, of the 1,416 National Priorities List
          sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

          "What are ethylene glycol and propylene glycol?
          "Both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are clear, colorless, slightly syrupy
          liquids at room temperature. Either compound may exist in air in the vapor
          form, although propylene glycol must be heated or briskly shaken to produce a
          vapor. Ethylene glycol is odorless but has a sweet taste. Propylene glycol is
          practically odorless and tasteless.

          "Both compounds are used to make antifreeze and de-icing solutions for cars,
          airplanes, and boats; to make polyester compounds; and as solvents in the paint
          and plastics industries. Ethylene glycol is also an ingredient in photographic
          developing solutions, hydraulic brake fluids and in inks used in stamp pads,
          ballpoint pens, and print shops.

          The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified propylene glycol as an
          additive that is "generally recognized as safe" for use in food. It is used to absorb
          extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or food
          products. It is a solvent for food colors and flavors.

          Propylene glycol is also used to create artificial smoke or fog used in fire-fighting
          training and in theatrical productions.


        • California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
          "Chemicals Listed Effective June 11, 2004
          as Known to the State of California to Cause Cancer:

          3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine,
          3,3'-dimethylbenzidine-based dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine,
          ethylbenzene, propylene glycol mono-t-butyl ether, and thiouracil


        • DOW's Products You Can Trust (Accessed 06/19/04)
          "Propylene glycols are used in a wide variety of end-use applications,
          from cosmetics and household detergents to paints and automotive brake fluids."


        • EPA's IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System)
          "... II. Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
          Substance Name -- Propylene glycol
          CASRN -- 57-55-6
          "This substance/agent has not undergone a complete evaluation and determination
          under US EPA's IRIS program for evidence of human carcinogenic potential.
          Incomplete evaluations do not mean that a chemical is free from "human carcinogenic potential." -- barb


        • GreenPeace - The Chemical Home


        • HEALTHY BUSINESS 2000 Are Your Personal and Skin Care Products Safe?
          "... Plastics/Pesticides/Antibacterials. Petroleum by-products coat your skin with a
          "plastic" layer, inhibiting its ability to breathe. Resulting in hormonal disruption,
          immune system malfunction and premature aging. (Examples: mineral oil, PEGs,
          propylene glycol, triclosan, butylene glycol, PVP, and acrylics). ..."


        • Healthy Communications PROPYLENE GLYCOL
          MSDS Number: P6928 --- Effective Date: 02/25/99
          J.T. Baker: 9402, 9403, U510
          Mallinckrodt: 1925, 6263


        • NIH's Household Products Database


        • Organic Natural Health and Beauty
          Propylene Glycol
          "Much has been made by promoters of safe non toxic personal care toiletries and
          cosmetics of the dangers of known toxic chemicals such as Propylene Glycol and Ethylene
          Glycol, a related chemical. Although exposure to high levels of Propylene Glycol is
          known to cause serious and potentially irreversible health conditions, the chemical
          industry tell us that "small" quantities or low level exposure of Propylene Glycol is
          "safe" to use on the skin and in food. According to the safety data sheets of industrial
          chemical manufacturers, chemicals such as Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol will
          cause serious health conditions, including liver and heart damage and damage to the
          central nervous system if sufficient is absorbed by the body.

          "YOU make your own mind up about putting a toxic chemical such as propylene glycol
          on your skin every day or eating food with it in. (Cigarette manufacturers denied
          any health risks associated with toxic chemicals contained in cigarette smoke for over
          25 years! Could toxic chemicals we are exposed to on an everyday basis be the next
          "tobacco scandal"?)


        • Doris Rapp, MD
          " Another substance is called propylene glycol (PG). This is in shampoos, styling gels
          , body lotions and creams. It is actually antifreeze. Propylene glycol (PG) weakens
          skin cells. It¼s so toxic those who work with it must wear gloves and goggles. ..."


        • Tom's of Maine Ingredient Fact Sheet: Propylene Glycol
          If you want to feel better about applying and ingesting PG, read this. -- barb


      • Protecting Our Health


      • Protection and Advocacy -The Nation's Disability Rights Network
        • Olmstead vs L.C
          "On June 22, 1999, the United States Supreme Court held in Olmstead vs. L.C. that the
          unnecessary segregation of individuals with disabilities in institutions may constitute
          discrimination based on disability. The court ruled that the Americans with Disabilities
          Act may require states to provide community-based services rather than institutional
          placements for individuals with disabilities. ..."
          This page has a wealth of information. -- barb


      • Prozac
        Who was paid to approve Prozac. What is found in the Freedom of Information Act
        that Lilly does not want you to know?

        Psychiatric Drugs

      • Psychiatric Drug Facts
        By Peter R. Breggin, M.D.


        • Contact Information and list of books, covering such topics as . . .
            Prozac, Paxil, Luvox and other SSRIs: ÝFor information regarding
            side effects of Prozac and other SSRI's including Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox, Celexa, Effexor, etc.,
            as well as better approaches for depression see Dr. Breggin's book: The Antidepressant
            Fact Book (2001). ÝAlso see Peter R. Breggin and Ginger Breggin's book: Talking Back to
            Prozac (1994), and for updated information see Dr. Peter Breggin's medical text:Ý Brain
            Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry (1997).

            If you have questions or want information on tardive dyskinesia and other side effects
            of the neuroleptics (so-called anti-psychotics) as well as other psychiatric drugs, see
            Dr. Breggin'sÝ medical text: Brain Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry.


        • Brain Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry


        • The Benzodiazepines and other "Minor" Tranquilizers
          Chapter on Benzodiazepines from Brain-Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry: Drugs,
          Electroshock and the Role of the FDA
          Excerpts from Toxic Psychiatry by Peter R. Breggin, M.D.


        • Joe McCarthy Lives!
          He's whispering in the ear of Eli Lilly & Co., the manufacturer of Prozac

          By Peter R. Breggin, M.D.; (published in The Rights Tenet: Autumn 1994)


        • German Translations of Dr. Breggin's papers



        Public Affairs

        Public Integrity, Center for
        (You need Java to get into this site.)

        Public Concern Foundation, Inc.
        Public Integrity, Center for

        (also see newsletters and newspapers and online news and references)

        • American Chemical Society

        • Bay Nature
          An exploration of Nature in the San Francisco Bay Area


        • Danish Environment

        • Disability Publications
        • E -- The Environmental Magazine (E Magazine)

        • Environmental Building News

        • Environmental Health Perspective
          ENN - Environmental News Network
          • U.S. cosmetics panel allows use of disputed chemical
            By Laura MacInnis, Reuters; Wednesday, November 20, 2002
            "WASHINGTON ã Regulators from within the American cosmetics industry voted
            Tuesday to allow the use of a chemical ingredient in perfumes and beauty products which
            critics have linked to birth defects in animals.
            "The Cosmetic Ingredient Review panel ruled that three phthalates, chemicals used to
            make fragrances last longer, posed no health threat to cosmetics wearers. ..."
          • Sweet smelling lawns leave bad taste in mouths of environmentalists
            By Lucy Chubb; Thursday, August 24, 2000
            "Environmentalists in Ontario, Canada smell a rat ã or perhaps more accurately, they
            smell bubble gum and cherry.

            "These are the two scent choices of Masker-Aid Odour Concentrate, a new additive
            designed to mask the odors that accompany pesticides.

            "Anti-pesticide activists in the province assert that the introduction of Masker-Aid is an
            attempt to candy-coat a controversial issue and that use of the product could compromise
            the safety of children.

            "Julia Langer, a toxicology expert for World Wildlife Fund Canada, thinks it stinks. ..."


        • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Publications OnLine

        • Environmental Research Foundation
          "News and resources for environmental justice."
          (Home of Rachel's -- barb)

        • Environmental Science & Technology

        • Generations at Risk
          California PSR and CALPIRG v Generations at Risk

        • Grist Magazine


          • About Grist Magazine
            "Grist is an online environmental magazine. Our credo: Pull no punches,
            take no prisoners, accept no advertising. Eschew the wealth and fame
            that so often seduce online environmental journalists. And try to have a
            better sense of humor than a pack of fur protesters.

            Grist tackles environmental topics with irreverence, intelligence, and a
            fresh perspective. Our goal is to inform, entertain, provoke, and
            encourage creative thinking about environmental problems and
            solutions. We publish new content each weekday -- in-depth reporting,
            cartoons, summaries of breaking news stories, diary entries from
            activists, book reviews, an environmental advice column, and lots more.
            We're based in Seattle, and our contributors are scattered the world 'round.


          • Annie Berthold-Bond, author


          • Charlotte Brody, Health Care Without Harm
            This is a printer-friendly version of an article from Grist Magazine:


          • Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.
            A skeptical look at The Skeptical Environmentalist.
            • Vanishing Point - On Bjorn Lomborg and extinction
              by E.O. Wilson; 12 Dec 2001
              This is a printer-friendly version of an article from Grist Magazine:


            Daily Grist
            • Monday, 08.21.00
              Snippets of news items, such as:
              "Cherry Bomb
              Some Ontario lawn-care companies have begun covering up the smell
              of toxic pesticides with fragrances like bubble gum, mint, and cherry.
              Enviros and others worry that this new trend could endanger children,
              who might be attracted to the scents. Julie Langer of the World Wildlife
              Fund: "Pesticides give off a pretty recognizable smell and people
              naturally act adversely to it. This is an attempt to cover up what
              amounts to a warning signal."

              straight to the source: Vancouver Sun, Andrew Duffy, 08.21.00
              Bubblegum, cherry smells mask pesticides
              Andrew Duffy Vancouver Sun
              "OTTAWA -- An association that represents Ontario lawn-care companies is selling
              flavoured scents to mask the smell of toxic pesticides.
              "Environmentalists and landscapers worry Masker-Aid Odour Concentrate could
              endanger children, particularly with fragrances like mint, cherry and bubblegum. ..."


            • Wednesday, 11 Dec 2002
              Snippets of news items, such as:
              " Sperm Wail
              "Next time you're perusing the cosmetics counter at Macy's or the
              personal-care aisle of CVS, you might want to take a pass on the lip liner
              and aftershave. According to new research conducted by scientists at the
              Harvard School of Public Health, exposure to monoethyl phthalate, a
              chemical commonly used in cosmetics and fragrances, may lead to DNA
              damage in men's sperm. Other studies have linked chemicals in the
              phthalates family to birth defects in animals, but this is one of the first
              studies on the effects of phthalates in humans. The finding comes just
              weeks after a controversial decision by the U.S. Cosmetic Ingredient
              Review panel, an industry-backed watchdog, to allow the continued use
              of three types of phthalates in personal-care products and perfumes,
              with assertions that the chemical uses were safe. The new study,
              published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, does not
              indicate whether sperm damage from monoethyl phthalate could lead to
              infertility or birth defects. "



        • The Hazards of Endocrine Disruptors

        • Heldref Publications.
        • Everyday Exposure to Toxic Pollutants, Scientific American

        • Green Home Living


        • Identification of Polar Volatile Organic Compounds in Consumer
          Products and Common Microenvironments
          , Lance A. Wallace U.S. EPA
          (This is the paper upon which Julia Kendall built her work.)

        • INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: An Introduction for Health Professionals

        • Journal of Healthcare Design

        • Mother Jones
        • The New England Journal of Medicine

        • New Scientist

        • Polar Organic Compounds in
          Fragrances of Consumer Products

        • Popular Science
          Pulldown menu at page bottom takes you to their other magazines -- barb

        • "Precautionary Principle"

        • Prevention
          Tell them about secondhand fragrances!



          I can't help but wonder if people with Psoriasis might see an improvement if they try to be
          extremely careful about using only organic, fragrance-free products. Try to avoid the flavors and
          fragrance industry's products in foods, drinks, personal care products, cleaning and
          maintenance products, and "environmental products like candles, air "fresheners" and
          potpourris. Also, do keep in mind that flavors and fragrances are added to pharmaceuticals that
          are also derived from petrochemicals.

          I know secondhand fragrance assaults can adversely affect people with eczema, acne (it caused
          my adult onset acne) and fragrance products used by others can also cause, exacerbate or trigger
          asthma. It seems to me it would be worth a try to keep the air around you as free from the
          harmful fragrance chemicals as possible. -- barb

        • Public Concern Foundation, Inc.
          • News On EARTH
            Phillip Frazer, Editor
            This is an excellent , fully packed 4-pager newsletter; worth more than its
            $15 dues payment to:
            Public Concern Foundation, Inc.
            101 West 23 Street
            PMB 2245
            New York, NY 10011

        • Public Citizen


        • Public Health and Prevention - a collabrative site between Medscape and APHA
          Free, searchable site, but you have to register


            A search (10/30/03) of this site for "fragrance" turned up . . .
            " Occupational Acute Anaphylactic Reaction to Assault by Perfume Spray
            in the Face (Journal Article)

            "Mar 2001 - Learn more about the organic compounds present in perfumes that
            have been documented to cause or exacerbate asthma."

            Upon clicking out to the article (above) by James E. Lessenger, MD, one can read his
            introduction, which leads me to believe again that we, the already fragrance-sensitized,
            have not been listened too. In his introduction he stated:

            "In the workplace, they have been associated with rashes in employees exposed to
            scented soaps, or with such allergic conditions as rhinitis or asthma in employees exposed
            to perfumes or fragrances in the air. Rarely have they been used in assaults."

            Alas, fragrances have been used in assaults, not only against fellow workers, but also against
            fellow students. But when the human resources manager "loves" her scents, as do the
            entity's lawyers and other management staff, they'll refuse to acknowledge that fragrances
            can and are being used as a deadly weapon. Therefore there is no record, and as we try to pursue
            our cases, our causes, we run up against not only disbelieving doctors, but also lawyers and
            judges. To my mind, we are living examples of Environmental Injustice. It is past time due
            for a change in paradigm. Look at the petrochemical makeup of fragrances and then you'll see how
            an assault with fragrance can lead to death-defying events. -- barb

        • PubMed
          • 1: Toxicol Lett 1999 Dec 20;111(1-2):161-8
            AHTN and HHCB show weak estrogenic--but no uterotrophic activity.
            Seinen W, Lemmen JG, Pieters RH, Verbruggen EM, van der Burg B.
            Toxicology Research Institute, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.


          • Behavioural outcome of school-age children after prenatal exposure to coumarins.
            Wesseling J, Van Driel D, Heymans HS, Van der Veer E, Sauer PJ, Touwen BC, Smrkovsky M


          • 1: Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001 Mar;933:24-37
            Controlled exposures to volatile organic compounds in sensitive groups.
            Fiedler N, Kipen HM.
            UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute,
            Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.


          • 1: Toxicol Lett 2002 May 28;131(3):147-51 Dermal absorption and disposition of musk ambrette, musk ketone and
            musk xylene in human subjects.

            Hawkins DR, Elsom LF, Kirkpatrick D, Ford RA, Api AM.
            Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., Alconbury, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE17 5HS, UK.
            Musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene have a long history of use as fragrance
            ingredients, although musk ambrette is no longer used in fragrances. As part of the
            review of the safety of these uses, it is important to consider the systemic exposure
            that results from these uses. Since the primary route of exposure to fragrances is on the
            skin, dermal doses of carbon-14 labelled musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk
            xylene were applied to the backs (100 cm2) of healthy human volunteers (two to three
            subjects) at a nominal dose level of 10-20 microg/cm2 and excess material removed at
            6 h. Means of 2.0% musk ambrette, 0.5% musk ketone and 0.3% musk xylene were
            absorbed based on the amounts excreted in urine and faeces during 5 days. Most of the
            material was excreted in the urine with less than 10% of the amount excreted being
            found in faeces. No radioactivity was detected in any plasma sample, consistent with
            low absorption, and no radioactivity was detected (<0.02% dose) in skin strips taken
            at 120 h. Analysis of urine samples indicated that all three compounds were excreted mainly as single glucuronide conjugates. The aglycones were chromatographically
            different, but of similar polarity, to the major rat metabolites excreted in bile also as
            glucuronides. PMID: 11992733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • 1: J AOAC Int 2001 Mar-Apr;84(2):376-81
            Determination of musk ambrette, musk xylol, and musk ketone in fragrance
            products by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

            Wisneski HH.; US Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC 20204, USA.
            " A gas chromatographic method using a capillary column with electron capture
            detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of 3 nitromusk fragrance
            ingredients: musk ambrette (MA), musk xylol (MX), and musk ketone (MK), in fragrance
            products. The accuracy of the method was determined by recovery of each nitromusk
            from fortified fragrance products at 3 different concentrations. Recoveries ranged
            from 95.0 to 105.9% for MA, 88.4 to 102.5% for MX, and 93.7 to 103.7% for MK. The
            method was used to survey 30 fragrance products purchased in the Washington, DC,
            area for each of the nitromusks. MA was not found in any of the products. MX was found
            in 9 products at levels ranging from 0.001 to 0.22%; MK was found in 8 products at
            levels ranging from 0.023 to 0.45%. The presence of MX and MK was confirmed by gas
            chromatography/mass spectrometry in many of the fragrance products. "
            PMID: 11324601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • 1: Toxicol Lett 1999 Dec 20;111(1-2):169-74
            Developmental toxicity studies of four fragrances in rats.
            Christian MS, Parker RM, Hoberman AM, Diener RM, Api AM.
            Argus Research Laboratories Inc, Horsham, PA 19044, USA.
            Four fragrances, 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-ben zopyran
            (HHCB), musk ketone and musk xylene were tested for developmental toxicity in
            Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group, 3 groups/fragrance, 2 fragrances/corn oil control). Dosages tested were HHCB: 50, 150, 500 mg/kg per day; AHTN: 5, 15, 50 mg/kg per
            day; musk ketone: 15, 45, 150 mg/kg per day; musk xylene: 20, 60, 200 mg/kg per day.
            All dosages tested exceeded multiples of the estimated maximal daily human dermal
            exposure. Treatment (gavage, 5 ml/kg) occurred on GDs 7-17 and Caesarean-
            sectioning on GD 20. Based on the results of these studies, none of the four fragrances
            tested were more toxic in the conceptuses than in the dams. Maternal NOAELs were
            50, 5, 15 and 20 mg/kg per day for HHCB, AHTN, musk ketone and musk xylene,
            respectively (150, 50, 45 and 60 mg/kg per day caused clinical signs and reduced weight
            gain and feed consumption). Developmental NOAELs were 150, 50, 45 and 200 mg/kg
            per day for HHCB, AHTN, musk ketone and musk xylene, respectively. No
            adverse effects on embryo-fetal viability, growth or morphology occurred at the highest
            dosages of AHTN (50 mg/kg per day) or musk xylene (200 mg/kg per day).
            Developmental toxicity occurred at the high-dosages of HHCB (axial skeletal
            malformations at 500 mg/kg per day) and musk ketone (increased postimplantation loss
            and reduced fetal body weight at 150 mg/kg per day). The results of this study
            indicate that under conditions of normal use, the tested fragrances do not
            pose a risk to human conceptuses.
            PMID: 10630712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          • Estrogenic activity of musk fragrances detected by the e-screen assay
            using human mcf-7 cells.

            Bitsch N, Dudas C, Korner W, Failing K, Biselli S, Rimkus G, Brunn H. Government Health Service Institute of Foodstuff and Veterinary Inspection,
            Marburger Str. 54, D-35396 Giessen, Germany.
            " The widespread use of synthetic musk fragrances and the resultant presence
            of these substances and their metabolites in the aquatic environment (as
            well as their accumulation in human adipose tissue) raises the question of
            whether musk fragrances display endocrine and in particular estrogenic activity.
            A variety of musk fragrances were tested using the E-screen assay. A statistically
            significant increase in proliferation rate of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells was
            detected for two nitro musks (musk xylene, musk ketone), a major metabolite of
            musk xylene ( p-amino-musk xylene), and the polycyclic musk fragrance AHTN.
            This indicates that these substances do, in fact, demonstrate estrogenic activity.
            Coincubation with the antiestrogen tamoxifen showed that the increase in
            proliferation rate by the musk fragrances is estrogen receptor-mediated. It must
            be noted, however, that the effective estrogenic strength and estrogenic potency
            were low compared to 17 b-estradiol. The naturally occurring fragrance muscone
            from the group of macrocyclic musk fragrances, a group of substances that have
            not yet been well characterized in respect to their toxicological properties, has also
            been shown to be weakly estrogenically active in vitro. E-screen analysis showed
            that the nitro musk metabolites o-amino musk xylene and 2-amino-MK, the
            macrocyclic musk fragrances ethylene brassylate, ethylene dodecandioate, and
            cyclopentadecanolide, are not estrogenically active."
            PMID: 12202919 [PubMed - in process]


          • 1: Int J Hyg Environ Health 2001 May;203(4):293-9
            Evaluation of health risks caused by musk ketone.
            Schmeiser HH, Gminski R, Mersch-Sundermann V.
            Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Clinical Medicine
            Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, P.O. Box 100023, D-68135 Mannheim, Germany.
            "Among the nitro musks, musk ketone (MK) as a synthetic compound with a typical
            musk odor is widely used in cosmetics. In the European Community the total amount
            used in fragrances has been reported to be 110 tons/a. Additionally, relevant amounts
            of MK are used in Indian joss sticks. As a result of its inherently low biodegradability
            MK has been detected in the aquatic environment (surface water, sediments, edible
            fish). Moreover, it has been shown that MK concentrates in human fatty tissue and
            breast milk, indicating that humans are constantly exposed. Several studies provided
            convincing evidence of lack of a genotoxic potential for MK. However, MK was identified
            as a strong inducer of phase I enzymes in rodents and a cogenotoxicant in vitro in
            human derived cells in rather low doses, suggesting that exposure to MK might increase
            the susceptibility to health hazards caused by carcinogens in humans.
            PMID: 11434209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

          • Inhalation challenge effects of perfume scent strips in patients with asthma.
            Kumar P, Caradonna-Graham VM, Gupta S, Cai X, Rao PN, Thompson J.
            Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, USA.


          • 1: Mutat Res 2001 Aug 22;495(1-2):89-96
            Musk ketone enhances benzo(a)pyrene induced mutagenicity in human derived
            Hep G2 cells.

            Mersch-Sundermann V, Schneider H, Freywald C, Jenter C, Parzefall W, Knasmuller S.
            Department of Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, FB VI, University of Trier, 54286 Trier, Germany.
            Musk ketone is a widely used artificial fragrance which has been identified in human
            fatty tissue and milk. The mutagenic and comutagenic effects of this compound were
            studied in micronucleus tests with a human derived hepatoma cell line (Hep G2).
            Exposure of the cells to MK alone in the range between 5 and 5000 ng/ml did not cause
            induction of MN. When the cells were treated simultaneously with MK (5-5000 ng/ml)
            and 0.2 microg/ml benzo(a)pyrene, no synergistic effects were detected;
            benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) itself caused an 1.5-fold increase of MN over the spontaneous
            background frequency (60 versus 39 MN/1000 binucleated cells). In a third experimental
            series, the cells were pretreated with MK for 28h and subsequently exposed to
            0.2 microg/ml B(a)P. In this case, a pronounced comutagenic effect was observed: The
            LOAEL for MK was 0.05 microg/ml. With higher doses (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 microg MK/ml),
            a significant increase of B(a)P induced MN frequencies was measured, the induction
            rates being 50, 66, and 88%, respectively. Additional measurements of
            7-ethoxyresorufin deethylase indicated that MK induces cytochrome P450 isoenzymes
            (1A1) which play a key role in the activation of B(a)P. The results of the present study
            show that MK amplifies the genotoxic effects of B(a)P in human derived cells and indicate
            that exposure of humans to MK might increase their susceptibility to the health
            hazards of B(a)P and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
            PMID: 11448646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • Nitromusk compounds in women with
            gynecological and endocrine dysfunction.

            By Eisenhardt S, Runnebaum B, Bauer K, Gerhard I.


          • Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of Coumarin in human and rat skin.
            Yourick JJ, Bronaugh RL.
            Cosmetics Toxicology Branch, US Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD 20708, USA. PubMed
            "Coumarin is widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, perfumes and soaps. The food and
            Drug Administration banned coumarin use in food because of reports that coumarin
            produced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Concerns about coumarin's safety have also been
            raised by toxicity testing conducted by the National Toxicology Program. Therefore, we
            initiated studies to measure the extent of coumarin absorption and metabolism in skin. ...
            These studies indicate that coumarin absorption is significant in skin. Systemic coumarin
            absorption must be expected after dermal contact with coumarin-containing products.
               PMID: 9250536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • 1: Arch Toxicol 2001 Nov;75(9):562-8
            The polycyclic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthaline lacks
            liver tumor initiating and promoting activity in rats exposed to human-relevant doses.

            Steinberg P, Zschaler I, Thom E, Kuna M, Wust G, Schafer-Schwebel A,
            Muller R, Kramer PJ, Weisse G.
            Lehrstuhl fur Ernahrungstoxikologie, Institut fur Ernahrungswissenschaft, Universitat
            Potsdam, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114-116, 14558 Bergholz-Rehbrucke, Germany.
            PMID: 11760818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Apr;63(4):743-8
            Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and

            Aoshima H, Hamamoto K
            Department of Physics, Biology and Informatics, Faculty of Science,
            Yamaguchi University, Japan. E-mail:
            " ... Since it is known that the potentiation of GABAA receptors by benzodiazepine,
            barbiturate, steroids and anesthetics induces the anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and sedative
            activity or anesthetic effect, these results suggest the possibility that the intake of
            perfume or phytoncid through the lungs, the skin or the intestines modulatesthe neural
            transmission in the brain through ionotropic GABAA receptors and changes the
            frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does."
            [Emphasis added.]



          • 1: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2002 May;42(4):437-46
            Synthetic musks in the environment. Part 1: Species-dependent bioaccumulation of
            polycyclic and nitro musk fragrances in freshwater fish and mussels.

            Gatermann R, Biselli S, Huhnerfuss H, Rimkus GG, Hecker M, Karbe L.
            Dr. Wiertz, Dipl.-Chem. Eggert, Dr. Jorissen GmbH, Analytical Laboratory (WEJ),
            Stenzelring 14b, D-21107 Hamburg, Germany.


          • 1: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2002 May;42(4):447-53
            Synthetic musks in the environment.
            Part 2: Enantioselective transformation of the polycyclic musk fragrances

            HHCB, AHTN, AHDI, and ATII in freshwater fish.
            Gatermann R, Biselli S, Huhnerfuss H, Rimkus GG, Franke S, Hecker M, Kallenborn R,
            Karbe L, Konig WA. Dr. Wiertz, Dipl.-Chem. Eggert, Dr. Jorissen GmbH
            Analytical Laboratory (WEJ), Stenzelring 14b, D-21107 Hamburg, Germany.


          • 1: Food Chem Toxicol 2001 Feb;39(2):97-108 Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and
            cosmetic ingredients.

            Api AM.  [FYI: Anne Marie Api, Ph.D., Scientific Director;
            Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc.]
            Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Inc.
            Two University Plaza, Suite 406, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA.

            "Diethyl phthalate (DEP; CAS No. 84-66-2) has many industrial uses, as a solvent and
            vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients and subsequent skin contact. This review
            focuses on its safety in use as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic
            ingredients. Available data are reviewed for acute toxicity, eye irritation, dermal
            irritation, dermal sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergenicity, percutaneous
            absorption, kinetics, metabolism, subchronic toxicity, teratogenicity, reproductive
            toxicity, estrogenic potential, genetic toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, in vitro
            toxicity, ecotoxicity, environmental fate and potential human exposure. No toxicological
            endpoints of concern have been identified. Comparison of estimated exposure
            (0.73 mg/kg/day) from dermal applications of fragrances and cosmetic products with
            other accepted industrial (5 mg/m(3) in air) and consumer exposures (350 mg/l in water;
            0.75 mg/kg/day oral exposure) indicates no significant toxic liability for the use of DEP
            in fragrances and cosmetic products. -- PMID: 11267702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • 1: Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2001 Sep;74(7):470-6
            Trends in the musk xylene concentrations in plasma samples from the
            general population from 1992/1993 to 1998 and the relevance of dermal uptake.
            Kafferlein HU, Angerer J.
            Institut und Poliklinik fur Arbeits-. Sozial- und Umweltmedizin, Universitat Erlangen,
            Erlangen, Germany.
            OBJECTIVES: Musk xylene (MX), an environmentally important nitromusk compound,
            is used in different fragrances and soaps as substitute for natural musk. MX is known
            to occur in breast milk and plasma samples from the general population. Biological
            monitoring was carried out to study the change in MX concentrations in
            plasma from the general population over a period of about 6 years. METHODS: Forty-one
            human plasma samples from the general population were collected and analyzed
            in 1998. The MX concentrations in plasma were compared with those in samples collected from the general population in 1992/1993. In order to study possible routes of
            exposure, we also analyzed perfumes (n = 8), various body-care products (n = 17),
            and detergents (n = 5) in the households from the persons who were exposed in 1998. The
            body-care products or the detergents were used every day or at least 3 -4 times
            per week. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A remarkable decrease in MX levels was
            found on comparing the values from 1992,1993 and 1998. In 1998 12% (five out of 41) of
            the samples analyzed yielded positive results for MX (median: <0.1 microg/l, range:
            <0.1-0.29 microg/l), while in 1993 MX was found in 92% (66 out of 72) of the samples
            (median: 0.24 microg/l, range: <0.1- 1.12 microg/l). The observed decrease is
            explained by the discontinued use of MX in detergents in Germany since 1993. As a
            consequence, no MX could be found in the investigated detergents in the present study.
            However, MX could be analyzed in at least one perfume and/or perfumed bodycare
            product of the exposed individuals. The concentrations were in the range between
            8.8 and 28.8 mg/kg in the investigated products. Because other confounding factors, e.g.
            diet and occupational exposure, could be excluded, the results point to the possibility
            that MX can be taken up through the skin. However, the small number of investigated
            persons limits this assumption.
            PMID: 11697449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

        • ScienceNewsOnline


        • The Washington Spectator

      • Rachel's Environment & Health Weekly
      • ScienceNewsOnline

      • Scientific American

      • The Sierra Club's Sierra Magazinee

        including PESTICIDES and LIMONENE

      • UTNE READER BACK ISSUES and contact information


        • CafÈ Utne
 "There is no charge to visit CafÈ Utne . All that's required is that you complete a
          registration form. Note: We do NOT currently have real-time chat capabilities."

      • yes!

      -- end publications --

    • PubMed search engine


      Pump Handle

      Cleaner Air Starts With Environmentally Sound Procurement
      Look for low-emitting-VOC, truly fragrance-free or unscented, less hazardous products.
      The reason I qualify "fragrance-free" and "unscented" is that the US Food and Drug
      Administration allows the industry to claim a product is unscented or fragrance-free,
      which nonetheless contain synthetic fragrances, used to mask other objectionable odors.
      We are admonished to read labels that don't mean anything but more confusion!

      While you are thinking cleaner and greener, also think fragrance-free personal care products
      to use and wear. To learn of some of the chemicals from which modern synthetic scents
      are made, visit the FDA Citizens' Petition at barb

    • DOI's "Traditional Versus 'Green' Cleaning Products"
      "Must not contain petrochemical-derived fragrances."
      Remember, if the product has "fragrance" listed on the label, it ain't green! -- barb


    • Greening Uncle Sam (GUS) -- Purchasing Tool Site
      Database on Environmental Information for Products and Services

      "The Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Database is a tool to make it easier
      to purchase products and services with reduced environmental impacts. The database
      is organized like a shopping mall with environmental information for selected products
      and services located within each store. ..."


    • Preferable Purchasing
      Pure Food - Organic Consumers Association

      Also listed under Organic at


      • #658 - PVC and the Breasts of Mothers, July 08, 1999


      • Baffled by the Baby Bottle: A Case Study in Chemistry


      • Discuss the pros and cons of the widespread use of polyvinylchloride (PVC)


      • Play Safe: Buy PVC Free
        Written by: Jackie Hunt Christensen. Article originally featured in Mothering Magazine.

        Next I developed non-healing wounds, mainly on my feet, ankles and lower legs . . . I was already into severe acne with my reactions to various fragrances worn by others, but this was different. The wounds would manifest as spontaneous craters ranging in size from nickels to quarters . . . a few the size of pennies and one the size of a half dollar. (Remember those coins?) Again on a cycle, though these would remain for six or more months, once they had developed, slowly healing from the depths of the center, up and toward the outside. They were not only ugly and painful but could impede my walking, particularly when developing on my ankles and calves. Occasionally one would appear on my thighs or kiester -- if on the sitting part of my anatomy, you can only imagine the pain and discomfort. Various ointments, including prescribed, had no noticeable affect upon the healing of these sores, so I gave up the idea of using them and just made sure the area remained free of infection. I took a love of Vitamin C. I didn't know about tea tree oil in those early days of my MCS.


      Also see EHN"s section on Pesticides, but use your browser's Find Command.


      July 2003 -- Back in the 1990s . . . can't remember when exactly, but before July 1997 . . . my
      chiropractor had discovered a cycle associated with my tinnitus (ringing in the ears). He kept
      a record of my work-related adverse health events, including asthma, headaches, and tinnitus.
      OK, so now I had information that my tinnitus was cyclical., what did that mean? I figured it
      had to be chemical, but my various reactions to fragrances couldn't explain it as that was daily
      and the tinnitus was a monthly pattern, once in a while it was off by a week.

      I called my friend, Julia Kendall -- the friend of so many with MCS, and a personal friend of mine
      since March 1992, when I first called her in response to a newspaper column in which she was
      denigrated. This time I asked of my friend: What does a monthly cycle of tinnitus mean? Julia had
      a one-word explanation that WAS an explanation: "PESTICIDES!," she exclaimed. And then
      she suggested I ask management for the records of their spraying: When, What, How much,
      Where . . .

      That info was not easily forthcoming, but they did give it to me. The pesticide spraying coincided
      with my recorded adverse health events, validating Julia's quick assessment. My persistence
      gained the information I had a right to know, but it also hastened me along the path of being
      considered a "problem employee" -- a royal pain in management's collective backside. It was
      sometime during this general timeframe that I was told by my former workplace that all they
      were using were pyrethroids and they were safe. BULL! Their stories of denied
      sprayings, etc., would make another book. Suffice it to say, my body always told me when the
      pesticides were sprayed . . . even when off schedule by a week. And, certainly despite denial!

      In the early stages of my tinnitus, it was dramatically eased by chiropractic adjustments, but
      after years it grew chronic. Only now after I've been out of the workplace 4.5 (counting from October 1998) years, and with detoxing with the help of chiropractic and the addition of
      acupuncture and Chinese herbs, do I find welcomed breaks in that incessant ringing in my ears.

      But to return to the earlier days of my MCS . . . a few months along, I also experienced a bloom
      of non-healing wounds, mainly on my feet, ankles and lower legs . . . I was already into severe
      acne as one of my various reactions to fragrances worn and used by others, but this was different.
      Fortunately, there would be only one or two really deep sores developing at a time. The
      wounds would manifest as spontaneous craters ranging in diameter from nickels to quarters . . . a
      few the size of pennies and a couple on my right ankle were the size of a half dollar. (Remember
      those coins?)

      The wounds accompanied the tinnitus on a cycle, though the sores would remain for six or
      more months once they had developed. They healed slowly from the depths of the center, up
      and toward the outside. They were not only ugly and painful but could impede my walking,
      particularly when developing on my ankles and calves. Occasionally one would appear on my
      thighs or kiester -- if on the sitting part of my anatomy, you can only imagine the pain and
      discomfort. Various ointments, including prescribed, had no noticeable affect upon the healing
      of these sores, and, of course, they weren't recognized by source. I gave up the idea of using
      ointments and just made sure I kept the area free of infection. I took a load of Vitamin C.
      I didn't know about tea tree oil in those earlier days of my MCS and then when I did learn about
      it, it was yet another thing my body didn't like. If infection looked like it was starting to form,
      I used sugar and covered it with a bandaid. I got by. Following my early retirement in 1998, I've not suffered those horrible wounds. My internist would commserate, but there was nothing
      she could do to relieve them. My OMD did "circle the dragon" and between the acupuncture, the Chinese herbs, and the fact that I was then out of a very toxic workplace, the wounds healed.

      And now, roughly a decade later, I have found the testimony of Dr. Adrienne Buffaloe, below,
      which gives the symptoms of poisoning by Pyrethrins or Pyrethroids, plus the other information
      to which I've built links. Thanks to all who have worked so hard to make crucial health
      information available. The people have a right to know.

      The above account could be read as a major whine by those so bent. So be it. However, I've written
      this, as well as my other comments scattered throughout EHN's site, to help give clues to those
      who are struggling to learn just what is the matter with their bodies. The patient has to learn,
      for the bulk of the mainstream doctors are not adequately educated on environmental illnesses.
      And that's a fact! -- barb

      Also see EHN's Pesticide Info page, but use your Find Command and key in Pyrethrin or Pyrethroid.


      • Activities of an Environmental Analysis Van in the German Federal State Schleswig-Holstein
        Anke Pr–hl, 1 Klaus-Peter B–ge, 2 and Carsten Alsen-Hinrichs 1
        Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 8, August 1997



      • Automatic Insecticide Dispenser Units


      • Beyond Pesticides - Safety Source for Pest Management
        Pyrethroids/ Pyrethrins Beyond Pesticides Rating: Toxic
        "... Cypermethrin (AmmoTM, CymbushTM, DemonTM)
        "Cypermethrin, one of a handful of light-stable synthetic pyrethroids, is registered
        to control cockroaches, fleas and other indoor pests in homes, restaurants, hospitals,
        schools and food processing plants, and also in agriculture to control pests on cotton,
        fruits and vegetables."
        Is it also registered to sicken people? Read on . . . -- barb
        "...Symptoms of cypermethrin poisoning in humans include numbness, burning, loss of
        bladder control, vomiting, incoordination, seizures, coma and death. In California,
        cypermethrin is the fourth most common cause of pesticide-related illness in pest control
        operators. EPA classifies cypermethrin as a class C (possible human) carcinogen
        (EPA, 1997). Studies in laboratory animals have shown exposure to cypermethrin to
        cause reproductive effects, including abnormal sperm and disruption of sex hormones
        (Cox, 1996). Cypermethrin should not be applied near water, because it is very toxic to
        fish and other aquatic organisms. ..."


      • Dr. Adrienne Buffaloe
        Transcript of testimony of Dr. Adrienne Buffaloe on the effects of pesticides
        on people, particularly malathion and pyrethroids based on her own evaluations of her
        before hearings held by a Congressional panel chaired by Congressional
        representative Gerald Ackerman, of Queens NY.

        "...Pyrethrins or Pyrethroids, ... causes severe allergy attacks in sensitive people,
        dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic reactions, numbness of the lips and tongue,
        sneezing, vomiting, diarrhea, ringing in the ears and restlessness; it can also cause
        convulsions, which is seizures, incoordination, and death from respiratory paralysis.

        "To say that these pesticides are perfectly safe is an outrage. With Resmethrin or
        Pyrethroid, it's particularly problematic, because the first death from a Pyrethroid
        exposure was reported right here in New York City in 1994, just five years before
        the spraying, by the current director of the New York City Poison Center. And that
        article has been given to the legislators, and it is in your packet. This death was as a
        result of a very brief exposure to Pyrethroid.
        ..." [emphasis added]


      • Connie Eash's Pyrethroid Toxicity


      • E X T O X N E T - Extension Toxicology Network
      • Government Officials call Pyrethroids "Safe". Sound Science Says Otherwise


      • Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids
        About these commonly used poisons.

      • Pyrethroids

      • Pyrethroids Hotlist

      • Pyrethroids may be linked to Breast Cancer
        Environmental health Perspectives-Mt. Sinai study documents connection
        between pyrethroids and breast cancer
        Note: Full report available for members. -- barb


      • Pyrethrum - TCYE
        CATEGORY: Pyrethrins (natural) and pyrethroids (synthetic)
        "Pyrethroids are nerve poisons and affect the central and peripheral
        nervous system. Inhalation is probably the main route of occupational
        exposure to pyrethrins. Other ingredients in pyrethrin formulations
        such as solvents (petroleum distillates) may cause toxic effects.
        Acute exposure effects include dermatitis, diarrhea, headache,
        irritability, peripheral vascular collapse, tremors, vomiting and
        disturbance of liver enzymes. Allergic reaction have resulted in the
        following effects, fever, anaphylaxis (extreme hypersensitivity to a
        foreign protein or drug), hypersensitivity pneumonia, pallor, nasal
        congestion, sweating, swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and mucous
        membranes (ENVCHEM), (Worksafe).
        And in my case, upon exposure in the workplace, tinnitus AND instantly cratering,
        non-healing wounds. These symptoms would appear usually on a monthly schedule and when
        my body was off a week, sure enough, the spraying was off a week! I cannot tell you the number of times I was told: "You are right again, Barb." You'd think they'd have learned! -- barb
      • Scimitar WP: A New Pyrethroid Insecticide Dave Smitley, Entomology

      • Toxicity of Pyrethroids to Estuarine Animals:

      • USGS: "National assessment of pesticides in the streams, rivers, and ground water of the United States "


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      EHN's homepage

      ehnlinx/p.htm -- 10/17/99 link out to info on pesticide dangers, pesticide inerts, Pest Managemnt, PANNA, Pesticide Watch, Pollution, Perfume, products for EI, precautionary principal, Prop 65, publications