Barb Wilkie's EHN Website
Last updated 2008

EHN Board President Barb Wilkie was very ill from chemically-induced kidney disease for several years. She passed away May 31, 2011. EHN presents this site both as a tribute and as valuable information. Many links and references will be out of date but Barb's research holds up over time. We will be transferring the site page by page, with updated details, to EHN's main site. If you would like to reach an EHN staff person, please contact us directly.

Barb Wilkie's site;
EHN's site now at


Clicking on the alpha character above will take you to another page of links.

Clicking on the QuickClicks below will take you immediately to that topic. Remember to scroll above
and below the quick clicks for a lot more valuable information. Of course, you can always use your
web browser's "Find" command in hope of finding a particular link.

Mammogram | Masks | Material Safety Data Sheets | Mattresses

MBP | Dr. Ann McCampbell | MCS

ME | MEDIA | Medical Errors | Medical Info | Medical Waste

Medline | Memorial | Mental Health | Merck | Mercury | Mesothelioma

MiCASA | Migraines | Dr. Claudia Miller | Dr. Millqvist | Mindfully

Mold | Susan Molloy | Monsanto | Mosquito | Motels | Mothers | Movies | Moyers

MS | MSDS | MSG | MTBE | MTP | MUPJ | Museums | Musk | Myofascia Pain

ehnlinx/m.htm --

Outbound to Government LINKS

EHN does not endorse any product, service or therapy and none is intended or implied.


MACI - Massachusetts Association for the Chemically Injured, Inc
Welcome to the worldwide web! --barb.


Mad Cow Disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

Mad Scientist Network


Ask a Doctor of Chiropractic

Maine Injured Workers Association
"Chemically Injured Workers Ignored, Disenfranchised and Thrown Away..."

Also see
EHN's section on Breast Cancer, under Cancer

EHN's section on Thermography

EHN's section on X-Rays

My expressed feelings do not reflect the opinion of EHN board or members, these are my own beliefs. -- barb

To each her own on this one, but I have never had a mammogram and I certainly don't plan
on having any in the foreseeable future. I would consider thermography, if necessary . . .

I cannot help but wonder if I too would be a breast cancer statistic if I had mammograms
when I was in my 30s and they were first recommended to me as part of Kaiser's Multiphasics.
I refused to enter that area for those tests and then I always stood my ground with my doctor.
Doctors could recommend, I didn't have to follow the advice. Also, I nursed my babies, refused
the pill, and in later years I refused any and all recommended hormone therapies -- recommended
mind you, despite the fact that I had no symptoms that needed abating. I always took magnesium
and figure that got me through life's changes without any symptoms. Maybe magnesium and luck.
But I sure didn't need to take HRT just because my then-doctor was trying to push it.

One would think that folks like me would be included in all of the "SOUND SCIENCE" studies
regarding woman's health, especially regarding breast cancer. But the truth is, that while in the
past I've been courted time and again for studies, I've been refused out of hand because I refuse
to undergo mammography. They state they need a mammogram for a baseline, and I claim
that that would subject me to radiation doses that I'm not willing to have. And in my mind
that skews the data, for how can one test the effects of radiation vs. no radiation, if one forces
radiation on the participants of the study? Alas, I'm not a scientist. My opinion doesn't
count in the larger scheme of things -- but it counts to me.

Of course, there may be valid reasons to have a mammogram. I simply suggest YOU explore ALL
options before simply having a mammogram because everyone else does it. OR because your
doctor is supposed to tell you to have one, and you automatically follow his or her advice.
Why not discuss the options of ultra sound or thermography with your doctor?

Remember: Cancer is big business. Really B I G buisness! -- barb

I wrote this section (above and below) long ago, probably in the late 1990s when first
working on this site to donate to EHN. Now it is 2009 and I just came across again, a piece
by Dr. Samuel Epstein and I wish to share it with you. Ironically it was written just before
I started working on this website, but I didn't get it listed until now, June 25, 2009.
-- barb

The Montana Project
Low-Emission Computers


Mosquito Info
  • American Mosquito Control Association, The
    "The AMCA is a PESP Partner and advocates integrated pest
    management (IPM) which has been identified by the Federal government
    as an underutilized approach to pest control that would lead to reductions
    in pesticide risk. Learn how this is accomplished through the extensive use
    of surveillance, mosquito fish, biological and reduced risk insecticides, and
    reduction in source areas where the larvae develop."


  • Beyond Pesticides: NATIONAL ALLIANCE FOR


  • CDC: Surveillance for Acute Insecticide-Related Illness Associated with
    Mosquito-Control Efforts --- Nine States, 1999--2002

    Now, what I wonder, is does CDC look to long-term effects, say of Malathion poisoning?
    We know that we lost Julia Kendall to leukemia that developed as a result of malathion poisoning.
    Surveillance for acute illnesses is one thing, but what about the long-term effects, including
    Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Parkinson's, etc. ? -- barb


  • Chicago Wilderness Magazine
    The Great Spray Debate: Spring 2003
    Could synthetic sprays eliminate our best defenseagainst West Nile virus ã a healthy ecosystem?
    by Arthur Melvile Pearson
    "... Dr. William Paul, deputy commissioner of the Chicago Department of Public Health,
    acknowledges that spraying of adult mosquitoes is the least effective means of
    mosquito control. ..."

    "... But what, exactly, is the degree of risk? Chicago's Web site carries the message that,
    even where West Nile is established, fewer than one percent of mosquitoes are
    infected. The CDC estimates that the majority of people who become infected will
    experience no symptoms at all. Twenty percent may develop West Nile Fever, with
    flu-like symptoms that may last a few days. The CDC further estimates that only 1 in 150
    infected individuals, or .7 percent, may develop a more severe manifestation of the

    "Compared to the low risk of contracting this serious disease, what is the likelihood of
    someone suffering a reaction to the spraying itself? According to the National Pesticide
    Information Center, inhaling pyrethroids ã if you happened to be outdoors during
    spraying, for instance ã can cause its own flu-like symptoms: "coughing, wheezing,
    shortness of breath, runny or stuffy nose, chest pain, or difficulty breathing...rash,
    itching, or blisters." Those most at risk are the young, the elderly, those with asthma, and
    those with chemical sensitivity.

    "As for long-term risks, the EPA has determined that pyrethroids are carcinogenic,
    although which risk classification remains to be determined. The No Spray Coalition
    reports that the various elements in Anvil are either known or suspected to be toxic to
    the liver, kidneys, the gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory tract. ..." [Emphasis added/.]


  • Fairfield Connecticut's Mosquito Management - Health Department Role Fact Sheet


  • "Menacing mosquitoes!"

  • Mosquito & Vector Control Association of California (MVC)

  • Mosquito Dunks
    RealGoods: Doughnut-shaped dunks float on water and slowly release
    bacillus thuringiensis, a natural pesticide lethal to mosquito larvae.

    Mosquito Management Program., State of Connecticut



See EHN's list of Hotels

Mothers & Others
They've closed their doors, their website is a NOT FOUND. Sad.

Mothers for Cleaner Air

Mothers for Natural Law

Mountain Light Photography


The Mountain Resource Center

"Mission Statement: To identify and advocate needed services for mountain
area residents, and to bring institutions and individuals together to provide
these programs via a local, single point of entry.

The Mountain Resource Center is located at:
10875 US Hwy. 285
Conifer CO 80433

Telephone: (303) 838-7552

Also see EHN's Videos, where you can learn about Alison Johnson's videos and others. -- barb


  • The Tomato Effect
    2003: A film documentary in the making.
    What's that? Tomato Effect???? Click here to find out! This is a movie FOR us. -- barb

      Benefit Party - Silent Auction -- Read all about it! Attend fragrance-free
      Aug 22, 2003, San Francisco, 6-9 p.m., Delancey St. Foundation

      About the film

      News and Press

      Newsletter (A coming attraction)

      Funds are needed . . . Please Donate what you can.

      Their Donate page came up garbled on my screen, but here is the important info:

        Dear Friends:

        Below is a letter from the International Documentary
        Association, which endorses my documentary, The
        Tomato Effect
        , and provides me with fiscal
        sponsorship. This means that if you would like to
        donate, your contribution is tax deductible.

        Your help is greatly needed and immensely appreciated.
        If you choose to contribute, simply make your check
        out to the IDA and note, “The Tomato
        ” in the memo section. Mail
        your check to one of the following addresses:

        Faun Kime
        Rabble-Rouser Media
        PO Box 3382
        Santa Monica, CA 90408


        International Documentary Association
        1201 West 5th Street, Suite M320
        Los Angeles, CA 90017

        Don’t forget to reference “The
        Tomato Effect
        ” on your check!! Also,
        if your contribution is $200 or over, you will automatically
        be sent a receipt. Otherwise, please request one.

        Thank you,
        Faun Kime


    Bill Moyers
    • NOW


    • Bill Moyers' Trade Secrets


      • The Options - Right to Know and Protecting Yourself

        Under Protecting Yourself, Kitchen
        "Food producers increasingly rely on synthetic flavors
        and food dyes, some of which are proven toxins. For
        example: "Blue number two," used in beverages, candy
        and pet food causes brain tumors in male mice.
        "Red number three," used in baked goods, candy, and
        maraschino cherries, has caused thyroid tumors in rats.
        While petroleum-based artificial flavorings are generally
        safe, their manufacture often leads to potential
        exposures. For example, the production of Vanillin -
        artificial vanilla flavor - requires benzene."

        Vanillin and Benzene

        Under Protecting Yourself, Bathroom:
        "The identities of the estimated 3,000 chemicals used in the
        fragrance industry are strictly protected under trade
        secrecy laws. Manufacturers of perfumes, colognes, soaps,
        lotions and other products merely list "fragrance" on
        labels without revealing specific chemicals, making it
        impossible to evaluate health risks. Manufacturers have
        the responsibility to assure that their products are safe,
        but several fragrance ingredients that were used in
        products for more than 20 years were later found to be
        neurotoxic or carcinogenic. One 1998 study in the Archives
        of Environmental Health found that mice repeatedly
        exposed to certain colognes suffered nervous system damage,
        as well as lung problems."
        "Because it is impossible to know the identity of fragrance
        ingredients - and therefore to evaluate their potential
        effects on human health - you may choose to use soaps
        and lotions that are fragrance free."
        "Scents & Sensitivity"

        "Fragrance Info Network [the site of Betty Bridges, RN]"

        And then, under Kitchen, check out Flavors ... the other half
        of the Flavors and Fragrance industry:

        "Food producers increasingly rely on synthetic flavors and
        food dyes, some of which are proven toxins. For example:
        "Blue number two," used in beverages, candy and pet food
        causes brain tumors in male mice. "Red number three," used
        in baked goods, candy, and maraschino cherries, has
        caused thyroid tumors in rats. While petroleum-based
        artificial flavorings are generally safe, their manufacture
        often leads to potential exposures. For
        example, the production of Vanillin - artificial vanilla
        flavor - requires benzene."


        > MS -- Multiple Sclerosis

        MSDS (Material Data Safety Sheets -- see EHN's list of links)


        MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether)

        Multinational Monitor Online

        Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
        See EHN's page MCS at

        Multiple Sclerosis



        Folks, you are adding the musks to your body, the body of your children, and to fish and wildlife
        downstream. Musks store in adipose (fatty) tissue and they do not "wash out" in wastewater
        treatment. As there are no government regulations in place to protect you from all of the
        fragrance chemicals in the myriad of products to which they've been added, it is up to you to
        become a savy shopper. Buy fragrance-free . . . but here you have to be particularly astute as the
        FDA allows words like "fragrance-free" and "unscented" to be used even though fragrances
        are used in the product as "masking scents." Look for eco-friendly, truly fragrance-free,
        petrochemical free and organic products. You'll create less pollution for the air, your body and our planet. -- barb

        • ambiente: [ambio] Fragrance chemicals as an environmental concern


        • Botanical ElementsTM
          BETA Research Resource page
          Lots of info . . . read it, become aware. -- barb


        • Chemical Pollutants (ChemPro)
          Prof. Dr. Walter Giger, Head; Switzerland


        • Chemicals: Cosmetics Identified in Breast Milk: Nitro Musks


        • Chem-Tox : Perfume and Fragrance Exposure During Pregnancy
          Common Fragrance Ingredient Damages Connections Between Brain Cells

          Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Volume 75:571-575 (1984) " ... Musk Ambrette is the name given to a commonly used fragrance ingredient, that
          according to researchers, causes serious brain damage in laboratory animals exposed
          to the chemical. ...


        • Civet Cat
          Section of article about SARS, which describes musk collection as it used to happen. Now they
          synthesize musk. Great for the animals, but how about the health of 'fume users? -- barb

          " ... Best known is the Indian civet, which was often captured so its musk could be used
          for perfume. The palm civet is a tree-dwelling, fruit-eating family, with a number of
          species found in Africa and Asia.

          "Animal rights groups say the civet is often kept in a narrow cage where, every two or
          three weeks, a person will grab the animal while another applies pressure to the musk
          gland between the genitals and the tail to extract a fatty, yellow substance that's used
          as the basis of perfume. (Most perfume companies now use synthetic civet musk). ..."


        • Common Fragrance Ingredient Damages Connections Between Brain Cells
          Drs. P. S. Spencer, M. C. Bischoff-Fenton, O.M. Moreno, D. L. Opdyke, R. A. Ford
          Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology Vol.75:571-575 (1984)


        • Cosmetics Unmasked -- New Restrictions Proposed for Fragrance Chemicals
          By Stephen and Gina Antczak, authors of Cosmetics Unmasked
          "... 32.Musk ambrette
          " Prohibited. Musk ambrette should not be used as a fragrance ingredient based on
          photosensitivity, neurotoxic effects and on accumulated evidence that musk ambrette
          can penetrate human skin and is only slowly excreted. ..."


          Field and Human Studies in the Nordic/Baltic Region

          30 June - 3 July 1999, Vilnius, Lithuania
          By Sebastian Kevekordes, Hartmut Dunkelberg, Volker Mersch-Sundermann
          Use your browser's find command to search for MUSK. -- barb


        • "A Whiff of Danger: Synthetic Musks May Encourage Toxic Bioaccumulation"
          Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 113, Number 1; January 2005


          • Common household fragrances may be harming aquatic wildlife, study finds - 30 Oct 2004
            "Those fragrant soaps and shampoos we casually rinse down the drain may be causing
            long-term damage to aquatic wildlife downstream by interfering with the animals'
            natural ability to eliminate toxins from their system, according to a new Stanford
            University study published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). ..."

            "...The study also has implications for human health. 'People have these same transporters
            in the blood-brain barrier, the placenta and the intestines,' Luckenbach explained.
            'Perhaps exposure to chemical fragrances could compromise the transporters, making
            it easier for pollutants to enter the brain, for example.'..."
            Also see EHN's section on POPs, General Links, page P. -- barb


        • Environmental Protection Agency

        • The European Commission
          "... Draft opinions on Musk Ketone and Musk Xylene"

          Dr. White introduced the issue saying that the Plenary meeting of 30 September 1999
          decided to refer the draft opinions on Musk Ketone and Musk Xylene back to the
          Working Party as there was still concern about carcinogenicity, their accumulation in
          mother's milk and an acceptable concentration in the finished product.
          [emphasis added]


        • Fragranced Products Information Network
          "Do Fragrance Chemicals Play a Role in Breast Cancer?" By Betty Bridges, RN


        • Fragrance (& Spice) Allergy
          Aukland Allergy Clinic
          "Fragrances are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, and
          they are certainly the most common cosmetic ingredient causing allergic contact
          dermatitis. They can also cause photodermatitis, contact urticaria, irritation,
          hyperpigmentation and depigmentation of skin. ..."


        • GALAXOLIDE 50 CAS: 1222-05-5
          Search Aldrich ( by CAS # 1222-05-5
            CAS: 1222-05-5 ... "... Miscellaneous: This chemical is in the EPA inventory under TSCA.
            [The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA),1976.]
            "Label Precautions: Irritant
            "Flavors and Fragrances"


          And then from the MSDS for Galaxolide 50 . . . from Aldrich

          NAME:     1,3,4,6,7,8-HEXAHYDRO-4,6,6,7,8,8-HEXAME
                CYCLOPENTA(G)-2-BENZOPYRAN IN 50% DEP


          "SECTION 11. - - - - - - - - - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION - - - - - - - -

            ACUTE EFFECTS
                  CAUSES SKIN IRRITATION.
                  MAY CAUSE EYE IRRITATION.
                  MAY BE HARMFUL IF INHALED.
                  RESPIRATORY TRACT.
                  MAY BE HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED.

          Frankly, I've never been at risk from swallowing another individual's signature scent, but I
          have been put in harm's way because I had to INHALE another's favorite fragrance. Just imagine
          the harm users could set themselves up for through absorption AND inhalation. -- barb

        • Dictionary of Toxicology, 2nd Edition
          MacMillan Reference Ltd
          "acetylethyltetramethyltetramin (AETT; polycyclic musk; musk tetralin;
          Versalide; Musk 26A; 1,1,4,4 - tetramethyl - 6 - ethyl - 7 - acetyl - 1,2,3,4 -
          tetrahydronaphthaline). CAS number 83-29-9. A neurotoxic compound originally
          used in fragrance preparations, but now withdrawn from commercial use and thus
          primarily of historical interest. Blue tissue discoloration follows i.p. injection into rats and
          rabbits, but not monkeys, ostensibly from metabolism to a triketoindane. After acute
          intoxication, animals experience hyperexcitability, depression and then progressive
          tremors. In subchronic exposure, animals exhibit hyperexciteability and hyperirritability,
          intermittent arching of the back, ataxia, limb weakness, foot drop and eversion of the hindfeet. Morphological changes include early and widespread neuronal pigmentation,
          and, later, scattered neuronal degeneration, intramyelinic edema and segmental
          demyelination. The LD50s in female rates are 316 mg/kg (oral), 126 mg/kg (i.p.) and
          584 mg/kg (unoccluded percutaneous). The mechanism of action is unknown. One sign
          of intoxication is a green-colored urine. There is no effective therapy."


        • emedicine
          Riehl Melanosis
          Synonyms and related keywords: Riehl's melanosis, pigmented cosmetic dermatitis,
          pigmented contact dermatitis, pigmented cosmetic contact dermatitis, melanosis faciei
          feminae, erythroderma exfoliativa recidivans faciei, lichen ruber planus cum


        • Environmental Health Perspectives
          Volume 107, Number 7, July 1999 Fragrances and Health
          "... Musk ambrette was also used in fragrances for years. Testing by the Research
          Institute for Fragrance Materials indicated that it was safe for use. It was later determined
          that musk ambrette caused photosensitivity reactions and had neurotoxic properties
          (3). The International Fragrance Association recommended in 1985 that musk
          ambrette not be used in products with skin contact. In 1991, musk ambrette was still
          being found in products tested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ..."
          by Betty Bridges, RN


        • The Good Scents Company

        • Health Canada


        • Huber Research
          Polycyclic and Nitromusks -- Polycyclic and nitromusks are artificial (non-natural)
          odiferous raw materials used in fragrance and flavor oils [1].

          "Due to their warm, sensual, long lasting odor, their exceptional chemical stability and
          their comparatively low price these compounds are - or were - extensively used1 in
          perfumery, cosmetics and toiletries, soaps and detergents and technical products.

          "Proof of the presence of nitromusks in the environment, more specifically in water and in
          fish, date back to the early eighties [2,3]. Research on the contamination of surface
          water, supply and drain sites of water purification plants has intensified this decade
          [4,5]. Musk xylene has been detected in human milk, fat [6] and blood [7]. Polycyclic musks
          have been found in the environment [8], in human fat and milk [9,10]. ..."


        • The impact of musk ketone on reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
          Carlsson G, Orn S, Andersson PL, Soderstrom H, Norrgren L.
          Dept of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
          SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
          PubMed; Mar Environ Res 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):237-41

          International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations

          ".1 Exposure data
          "Musk ambrette and musk xylene are nitro musks, which are prepared by nitration of
          tert-butylcresol methyl ether and tert-butyl-meta-xylene, respectively. Musk xylene and,
          in lower amounts, musk ambrette have been used since the early 1900s as fragrance
          ingredients in perfumes, soaps, detergents and cosmetics. Musk ambrette has also
          been used at low levels in foods such as candy, chewing gum and beverages. Nitro musks
          have been detected in surface waters and in fish and shellfish. ..."


          Aldrich: Found on search for "Musk" -- SYNONYMS
          5-TERT-BUTYL-4,6-DINITROXYLENE * 1-(4-(1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL)-2,6-
          SECTION 4. - - - - - - - - - - FIRST-AID MEASURES- - - - - - - - - - -
          AND WATER.


          R&S: S: 22-24/25 [See Risk & Safety data sheet]
            22. Haramful if swallowed
            23. Toxic by inhalation
            24. Toxic in contact with skin
            24/25. Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
          REALLY NICE STUFF!!!!!!!!!! Check for yourself-- barb


        • Leffingwell


        • Levels of Synthetic Musks in Municipal Wastewater
          for Estimating Biota Exposure in Receiving Waters

          by Lantis I. Osemwengie;Bachelor of Science Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas 1982
          I wonder how the water and carp would test in 2003??? -- barb


          Health Canada


          Chemical Land21


        • MUSK - An Essay


        • Musk Deer WWF - Be a Pharmaceutical Flatfoot!


        • Musk ketone enhances benzo(a)pyrene induced mutagenicity
          in human derived Hep G2 cells.

          Mersch-Sundermann V, Schneider H, Freywald C, Jenter C, Parzefall W, Knasmuller S.
          Dept of Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, FB VI, University of Trier, 54286, Trier, Germany
          PubMed; Mutat Res. 2001 Aug 22;495(1-2):89-96.


        • Musk Odorants
          by John C. Leffingwell, Ph.D.
          Well, just about the time I think I've found that musk ambrette has been pulled from market,
          I find it listed here in several places . . . but I can't get to additional info on it. -- barb


        • Musk T Supra; Aroma Chemical Compendium
          Chemical: Ethylene brassylate -- barb
          "Odor Description: Musky, fatty, floral, amber
          "Occurrence in Nature: Not found in nature.
          "Application Information: Useful in functional fragrance where a musk accord is
          desirable. Works well in household fragrances, where enhanced odor performance
          and product stability are issues. ..."


        • Musk xylene
          Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby- Chemical Pollution and Mother's Milk


        • Natural Substances Power Perfume
          Not quite all "natural." -- barb


        • New Zealand Dermatological Society
          Fragrance Mix Allergy
          "There are more than 5000 different fragrances that are in use today. In any one product
          the number of fragrances used can be many. Fortunately only a small number of
          fragrances are actually common sensitisers and cause allergy in sensitive individuals. "


        • Nitromusk compounds in women with gynecological and
          endocrine dysfunction.

          "Musk xylene (MX), musk ketone (MK), musk ambrette, musk moskene, and musk
          tibetene are synthetic fragrances. Between 1994 and 1996 these five nitromusk
          compounds (NMCs) were tested in the blood of 152 women who consulted the
          Endocrinological Department of the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
          Heidelberg, Germany, because of gynecological problems. ..."


        • On the Scent: Conserving Musk Deer
          The uses of Musk and Europe¼s role in its trade


        • Perfume and Neurological Effects
          A couple of abstracts concerning musk are in this list. -- barb


        • Perfumes may impede reproductive ability
          By WALTER J. CRINNION, N.D.; 05/16/2003
          Read this! If you suffer from PMS, you'll want to think twice about perfume use also.
          You'll have to register, but it's free. -- barb


        • Photodermatitis
          "... Alergic reactions:
          Fragrances containing, for example, musk ambrette and methylcoumarin
          Sunscreens with p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) esters ..."


        • PubMed
          • Contact Dermatitis 1986 Jan;14(1):53-6
            A simple method of qualitative analysis for musk ambrette, musk ketone
            and musk xylene in cologne.

            Goh CL, Kwok SF.
            "Musk ambrette has become one of the commonest photosensitizers in many countries
            and is the cause of persistent light reactions in many patients. A simple method is
            presented for qualitative analysis for musk ambrette and other nitromusks in colognes
            using thin-layer chromatography with toluene as carrier solvent and visualization
            under UVL. It is useful for identifying such colognes so that proper recommendations
            can be given to patients sensitive to musk ambrette. 14 of 32 men's colognes,
            analysed by TLC and confirmed on GC/MS, were found to contain musk ambrette,
            the concentration varying from 0.02 to 0.39% w/v.
            PMID: 3948510 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • Photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette. Clinical report of two patients with persistent light reactor patterns. Giovinazzo VJ, Harber LC, Armstrong RB, Kochevar IE. "... Patients presenting with dermatoses of unknown origin confined to the light-exposed areas should have fragrances considered as possible etiologic agents. ..."


          • References concerning polycyclic musk fragrances


            • Aquatic Fate Assessment of the Polycyclic Musk Fragrance HHCB - Scenario and
              Variability Analysis in Accordance with the EU Risk Assessment Guidelines.

              Chemosphere 41(5): 671-679
              Schwartz, S.; V. Berding; M. Matthies (2000).


            Toldeo Blade article: Synthetic musk linked to environmental risks BY MICHAEL WOODS

            BLADE SCIENCE EDITOR; March 24, 1999
            "...Drs. Kevekordes and Rimkus said that American scientists generally are not
            as aware of the European findings. Dr. Rimkus said scientists and
            government regulators have lagged Europe and Japan in research on the
            synthetic musks.

            Japan, he said, has banned musk xylene because of its ability to accumulate in
            fish and other aquatic life used as human food. Western European countries
            have agreed on a partial, voluntary phase-out of musk xylene, he said.

            "'On the basis of the precautionary principle, strong endeavors should be made
            by industry to move in the long term toward cessation of production and
            discharges of these synthetic musk compounds because of their poor
            degradability,' Dr. Rimkus said. ..."
          • Toxicol Lett 2002 May 28;131(3):147-151
            Dermal absorption and disposition of musk ambrette, musk ketone and
            musk xylene in human subjects.

            Hawkins DR, Elsom LF, Kirkpatrick D, Ford RA, Api AM.
            Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., Alconbury, Cambridgeshire PE17 5HS, Huntingdon, UK
            "Musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene have a long history of use as
            fragrance ingredients, although musk ambrette is no longer used in fragrances. ...
            Since the primary route of exposure to fragrances is on the skin, dermal doses of
            carbon-14 labelled musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene were applied to
            the backs (100 cm2) of healthy human volunteers (two to three subjects) at a
            nominal dose level of 10-20 microg/cm2 and excess material removed at 6 h."
            [emphasis added]
            Some thoughts: Perhaps "the primary route of exposure to fragrances is on the skin," but that
            is of the primary user. Failed to be taken into consideration is the fact that fragrances are
            volatile and therefore are inhaled by user and non-user.
            Even non-users can suffer
            adverse skin reactions to fragrance chemicals on the ambient air. Users and non-users are
            subjected to the adverse effects of fragrance chemicals via the respiratory system and via the direct
            pathway to the brain. There should be much more to fragrance testing than dermal effects
            upon the user. And there should be a far greater understanding of the effects of commonly used
            fragrance chemicals such as the phthalates, musks and coumarins. -- barb



          • Chirality 1999;11(10):795-801
            Enantiomeric composition of the polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN in
            different aquatic species

            Franke S, Meyer C, Heinzel N, Gatermann R, Huhnerfuss H, Rimkus G, Konig WA,
            Francke W.; 1: Chirality 1999;11(10):795-801
            "Synthetic polycyclic musk fragrances are mainly represented by the compounds HHCB
            (Galaxolide(TM)) and AHTN (Tonalide(TM)). Because of their volume of use and their
            bioaccumulation potential, there is concern with respect to their environmental safety. ..."


          • 1: Anticancer Res. 2002 Sep-Oct;22(5):2657-62.
            Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of two nitro-musk derivatives, musk xylene
            and musk tibetene in a host-mediated in vivo/in vitro assay system.

            Apostolidis S, Chandra T, Demirhan I, Cinatl J, Doerr HW, Chandra A.
            Department of Molecular Biology (ZBC), Frankfurt University Medical School,
            60590 Frankfurt, Germany.

            " ... The oncogenicity of these cell lines was tested in athymic nu/nu mice. Animals
            injected subcutaneously with these cells (1 x 10(6) cells at each side of the neck)
            developed tumors at the injection sites within 3 weeks of treatment. The experimental
            data reported here lead to the conclusion that musk xylene, as well as musk tibetene,
            have carcinogenic activity. In contrast to the negative results for mutagenicity and
            genotoxicity, a non-genotoxic mechanism for the carcinogenicity of musk xylene and
            musk tibetene must be considered. ..."


          • Int J Hyg Environ Health 2001 May;203(4):293-9
            Evaluation of health risks caused by musk ketone.
            Schmeiser HH, Gminski R, Mersch-Sundermann V.
            Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim,
            University of Heidelberg, P.O. Box 100023, D-68135 Mannheim, Germany.
            "Among the nitro musks, musk ketone (MK) as a synthetic compound with a typical musk
            odor is widely used in cosmetics. In the European Community the total amount used in
            fragrances has been reported to be 110 tons/a. Additionally, relevant amounts of MK are
            used in Indian joss sticks. As a result of its inherently low biodegradability MK has been
            detected in the aquatic environment (surface water, sediments, edible fish). Moreover, it
            has been shown that MK concentrates in human fatty tissue and breast milk, indicating
            that humans are constantly exposed.
            Several studies provided convincing evidence of lack
            of a genotoxic potential for MK. However, MK was identified as a strong inducer of phase
            I enzymes in rodents and a cogenotoxicant in vitro in human derived cells in rather low
            doses, suggesting that exposure to MK might increase the susceptibility to health hazards
            caused by carcinogens in humans." [emphasis added]


          • 1: J Pharm Biomed Anal 1998 Jul;17(3):393-8
            GC-MS analysis of incenses for possible presence of allergenic nitromusks. Roveri P, Andrisano V, Di Pietra AM, Cavrini V.
            Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Bologna, Italy.
            "A Gas chromatographic method with mass detector was developed to identify and
            determine nitromusks in incense sticks of different origin (India, China, Tibet). The
            proposed method was found useful to correlate dermatological allergic reactions with
            the use and composition of commercial incense sticks. The incense sticks were powdered,
            extracted with methanol and after the addition of 1-eicosanol as internal standard,
            injected into the GC-MS, using 25 m bonded phase fused capillary column methyl, 5%
            phenyl silicone (0.32 mm I.D., 0.25 microns film thickness). Musk ambrette was identified
            and determined in one kind of chinese[sic] incense together with musk ketone and
            musk xylene. The latter compound was also found alone in another kind of chinese incense."
            PMID: 9656149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          • 1: Sci Total Environ. 2003 Apr 15;305(1-3):53-64.
            Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by
            four synthetic musk substances.
            Wollenberger L, Breitholtz M, Ole Kusk K, Bengtsson BE.
            Environment and Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Building 115,
            DK-2800 Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark.
            "... Since the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low
            nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic.
            The larval development
            test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation
            of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information
            available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity
            tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental
            [emphasis added]


          • Chemosphere 1999 Oct;39(10):1723-35
            Levels of synthetic musks; bromocyclene and PCBs in eel (Anguilla anguilla)
            and PCBs in sediment samples from some waters of Berlin/Germany.

            Fromme H, Otto T, Pilz K, Neugebauer F; 1: Chemosphere 1999 Oct;39(10):1723-35
            "... This tendency, and the high amounts of polycyclic musk fragrances in the edible
            parts of eel show that these musks are widely being used in place of nitro musks and
            that they reach the aquatic system via waste waters, especially those of sewage treatment
            ..." [emphasis added]


          • Mutat Res 2001 Aug 22;495(1-2):89-96
            Musk ketone enhances benzo(a)pyrene induced mutagenicity in
            human derived Hep G2 cells.

            Mersch-Sundermann V, Schneider H, Freywald C, Jenter C, Parzefall W, Knasmuller S.
            Department of Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, FB VI, University of Trier, 54286 Trier,
            "Musk ketone is a widely used artificial fragrance which has been identified in human
            fatty tissue and milk. ...   The results of the present study show that
            MK amplifies the genotoxic effects of B(a)P in human derived cells and indicate that
            exposure of humans to MK might increase their susceptibility to the health hazards of
            B(a)P and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
            " [emphasis added]

          • Science 1979 May 11;204(4393):633-5
            >Neurotoxic fragrance produces ceroid and myelin disease.
            Spencer PS, Sterman AB, Horoupian DS, Foulds MM.


          • Environ Res 2001 Dec;87(3):123-30
            Nitromusk compounds in women with gynecological and endocrine dysfunction.
            Eisenhardt S, Runnebaum B, Bauer K, Gerhard I.
            WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Gynecological Endocrinology, Department
            for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproduction, University Hospital of Obstetrics
            and Gynecology, Voss-Strasse 9, Heidelberg, 69115, Germany.
            "...On the basis of our data, a reproductive toxicity and an endocrine effect of NMCs in
            women cannot be ruled out. Further experimental and clinical studies should be conducted.


          • J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980 Oct;3(4):384-93.
            Photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette.
            Clinical report of two patients with persistent light reactor patterns.



          • Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2002 May;42(4):437-46
            Synthetic musks in the environment. Part 1: Species-dependent bioaccumulation of
            polycyclic and nitro musk fragrances in freshwater fish and mussels.

            Gatermann R, Biselli S, Huhnerfuss H, Rimkus GG, Hecker M, Karbe L.
            Dr. Wiertz, Dipl.-Chem. Eggert, Dr. Jorissen GmbH, Analytical Laboratory (WEJ),
            Stenzelring 14b, D-21107 Hamburg, Germany.


          • 1: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002 May;42(4):447-53.
            Synthetic musks in the environment. Part 2: Enantioselective transformation of the
            polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB, AHTN, AHDI, and ATII in freshwater fish.

            Gatermann R, Biselli S, Huhnerfuss H, Rimkus GG, Franke S, Hecker M, Kallenborn R,
            Karbe L, Konig WA.
            Dr. Wiertz, Dipl.-Chem. Eggert, Dr. Jorissen GmbH Analytical Laboratory (WEJ),
            Stenzelring 14b, D-21107 Hamburg, Germany.


          • Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2001 Sep;74(7):470-6
            Trends in the musk xylene concentrations in plasma samples from the general
            population from 1992/1993 to 1998 and the relevance of dermal uptake.

            Kafferlein HU, Angerer J.
            Institut und Poliklinik fur Arbeits-. Sozial- und Umweltmedizin, Universitat Erlangen,
            Erlangen, Germany.

            " OBJECTIVES: Musk xylene (MX), an environmentally important nitromusk compound,
            is used in different fragrances and soaps as substitute for natural musk. MX is known
            to occur in breast milk and plasma samples from the general population. Biological
            monitoring was carried out to study the change in MX concentrations in plasma from
            the general population over a period of about 6 years. .... The observed decrease is
            explained by the discontinued use of MX in detergents in Germany since 1993. ..."


        • Raising a Stink - civet cats


        • References concerning polycyclic musk fragrances
          Quality assurance of fate and exposure models for risk assessment of substances
          Polycyclic musk fragrances: HHCB (CAS 1222-05-5, trade names e.g. Galaxolide®,
          Abbalide®, Pearlide®, Polalide®, Musk 50®), AHTN (CAS 1506-02-1,
          trade names e.g. Tonalide®, Fixolide®), ADBI (CAS 13171-00-1, trade names
          e.g. Celestolide®, Crysolide®), AHDI (CAS 15323-35-0, trade name e.g.
          Phantolide®), DPMI (CAS 33704-61-9, trade name e.g. Cashmeran®),
          ATII (CAS 68140-48-7, trade name e.g. Traseolide®), ATTN/AEET (CAS 88-29-9,
          trade name e.g. Versalide®)


        • shenet aroma
          Syntetisk mysk - Synthetic Musk


        • Synthetic Musk Fragrances
          By Stephan Lutter
          Read this! -- barb

          Or via PDF file


        • Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Environment
          By H¸hnerfuss, H., S. Biselli and R. Gatermann (2003); Research Group Prof. H¸hnerfuss Enantioselective analysis of polycyclic musks as a versatile tool for the understanding of environmental processes, in: G. Rimkus (ed.) Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Environment, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. (will appear soon)


        • Synthetic Musk Fragrances in Lake Michigan
          Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 367-372 1jan04
          Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
          The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242


        • Synthetic musk linked to environmental risks

          Available through Canary



          Frankfurt, Germany; Tuesday, 6 July 1999, 09:00 am GMT


        • U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1999 and 1999 Year-to-Date, not Seasonally Adjusted


        • Synthetic Musk Fragrances
          World Wildlife Fund
        Myalgic Encephalopathy (ME)

        Also visit: EHN's page on CFIDS

        EHN's page of MCS Links


      • ME -- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or CFS -- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
        ME research action plan revealed

        Tuesday, 17December, 2002, 01:08 GMT

        Myasthenia Gravis


          Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD)
        • "... According to Dr. William Campbell Douglass (Second Opinion March 2001),
          the brain is made mostly of fat. The myelin sheath that insulates every nerve fiber is
          made of fat. The essential fatty acids, also called Vitamin F or omega 3 fatty acids, are
          probably the most significant dietary deficiency today,..."


        • The Edelson Center for Environmental and Preventive Medicine
          Autism and other EI information


        • The Myelin Projec
          "The Myelin Project aims to accelerate research on myelin repair. Myelin,
          the white matter insulating the nerves, allows the conduction of impulses
          from one part of the body to another. It can be destroyed by hereditary
          metabolic disorders such as the leukodystrophies, and in acquired diseases
          such as multiple sclerosis. ..."


        • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)
          By Rabin Prusty, MSCE - Environmental Engineer
          " ... A significant percentage of our population, due to their genetic makeup, are less
          tolerant to toxic chemicals. Most of them will develop MCS through exposure to toxic
          chemicals being used in our society. Unfortunately, in the case of MCS, politics plays a
          major role. Emphasis should be given to conduct privately funded research for MCS
          including Gene Therapy."


        • Poster BC0203 - Monitoring experimental demyelinating lesions in the central
          nervous system by recording the cerebellar auditory evoked potential and detecting
          myelin basic protein in the cerebrospinal fluid

          Xuguang Liu, David E. Ray, Paul Glynn
          MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, ENGLAND.
          --- Internet address ---


        Myofascial Pain


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      Julia Kendall (1935 - 1997) leaves a legacy. Use this info in good health:

      Fabric Softeners = Health Risks From Dryer Exhaust and Treated Fabrics

      Making Sense of Scents

      Twenty Most Common Chemicals Found in Thirty-One Fragrance Products


      In progress -- it may be slow but it is steady. Please bear with us. Thank you.

      ehnlinx/m.htm -- 11/1/99